Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive material from Chondrus crispus and Codium fragile and its effect on herpes simplex virus (HSV-1).
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Chondrus crispus — commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock") — is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. In its fresh condition this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan, which constitutes 55% of its weight. The organism also consists of nearly 10% protein and about 15% mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jelly when boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water.
Chondrus crispus is an industrial source of carrageenan, which is commonly used as a thickener and stabilizer in milk products such as ice cream and processed foods, including lunch meat. In Europe, it is indicated as E407 or E407b. It may also be used as a thickener in calico-printing and for fining beer or wine. Irish moss is frequently mixed with Mastocarpus stellatus (Gigartina mammillosa), Chondracanthus acicularis (G. acicularis) and other seaweeds with which it is associated in growth. Carrageenan and agar-agar are also used in Asia for gelatin-like desserts, such as almond jelly. Presently, the major source of carrageenan is tropical seaweeds of the genera Kappaphycus and Eucheuma.
In parts of Scotland (where it is known as (An) Cairgean in Scottish Gaelic) and Ireland, it is boiled in milk and strained, before sugar and other flavourings such as vanilla, cinnamon, brandy or whisky are added. The end-product is a kind of jelly similar to pannacotta, tapioca, or blancmange. Similarly, in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago Gracilaria spp is boiled with cinnamon and milk to make a thick drink called Irish Moss that is believed to be an aphrodisiac. In Venezuela it has been used for generations as a home remedy for sore throat and chest congestion, boiled in milk and served with honey before bed.
Irish moss is commonly used as a clarifying agent in the process of brewing (beer), particularly in homebrewing. A small amount is boiled with the wort, attracting proteins and other solids, which is then removed from the mixture after cooling.
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Mar Drugs. 2015 Jan 16;13(1):558-80. doi: 10.3390/md13010558. Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive material from Chondrus crispus and Codium fragile and its effect on herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). Kulshreshtha G1, Burlot AS2, Marty C3, Critchley A4, Hafting J5, Bedoux G6, Bourgougnon N7, Prithiviraj B8.
Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts.
We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis, CF consisted of 11% protein, 31% neutral sugars, 0.8% sulfate, 0.6% uronic acids, and 49% ash, while CC contained 27% protein, 28% neutral sugars, 17% sulfate, 1.8% uronic acids, and 25% ash. Enzyme-assisted hydrolysis improved the extraction efficiency of bioactive materials.
Commercial proteases and carbohydrases significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) biomass yield (40%-70% dry matter) as compared to aqueous extraction (20%-25% dry matter). Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the recovery of protein, neutral sugars, uronic acids, and sulfates.
The enzymatic hydrolysates exhibited significant activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) with EC50 of 77.6-126.8 μg/mL for CC and 36.5-41.3 μg/mL for CF, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001 ID50/cells without cytotoxity (1-200 μg/mL).
The extracts obtained from proteases (P1) and carbohydrases (C3) were also effective at higher virus MOI of 0.01 ID50/cells without cytotoxity. Taken together, these results indicate the potential application of enzymatic hydrolysates of C. fragile and C. crispus in functional food and antiviral discovery.
The source of the experiencePubMed
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