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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's List of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Acinos suaveolens (SIBT. & SMITH) G. DON F. (Lamiaceae)



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Acinos suaveolens (SIBT. & SMITH) G. DON F. (Lamiaceae)


1,8-CINEOLE Shoot 5 ppm; JEO3:191

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

1-HEXEN-3-OL Shoot 7 ppm; JEO3:191

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Shoot 45 ppm; JEO3:191

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Shoot 8 ppm; JEO3:191

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

BETA-PINENE Shoot 50 ppm; JEO3:191

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BORNEOL Shoot 25 ppm; JEO3:191

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

CAMPHENE Shoot 10 ppm; JEO3:191

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CARVACROL Shoot 15 ppm; JEO3:191

Allergenic M&R240 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC 170-290 PMP25:184 MIC=39-625 450 ; Anticholinesterase? LGR ; Antidiuretic LRN-MAR92 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=4 uM DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antioxidant JEO5:153 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiprostaglandin DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 600 x thymol JEO5:153 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Antitussive CAN ; Candidicide 100-150 ug/ml JE58:143 MIC<0.1 ug/ml JAN47(4) ; Carminative LAF ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor =indomethacin DFN:161 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 10-125 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

CARVONE Shoot 5 ppm; JEO3:191

Allergenic M&R683 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol W&W ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JNP65:953 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000 ARC ; Fungistat JNP65:953 ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermicide DUKE1992B

DELTA-CADINENE Shoot 20 ppm; JEO3:191

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

EO Shoot 6,400 ppm; JEO3:191

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TERPINENE Shoot 3 ppm; JEO3:191

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GERANIAL Shoot 50 ppm; JEO3:191

Antiaflatoxin X19726096 ; Antibacterial JE12:279.1984 ; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM NR54:S24 ; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiviral NR54:S24 ; Antiyeast X12696686 ; Chemopreventive X17199238 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic X17199238 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmolytic JAR10:7

ISOMENTHONE Shoot 1,090 - 3,255 ppm JEO3:191

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.6 mM JAF45:677 ; Antioxidant X12802721 ; Antiradicular X12802721

ISOPULEGONE-I Shoot 15 ppm; JEO3:191

No activity reported.

ISOPULEGONE-II Shoot 35 ppm; JEO3:191

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Shoot 180 ppm; JEO3:191

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

MENTHOL Shoot 3 ppm; JEO3:191

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic MAR ; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiasthmatic MAB ; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiinflammatory MAR ; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic JPP46:16 ; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180 ; Antirheumatic MAR ; Antisalmonella X12083863 ; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Antivaginitic FEL ; Antivulvitic FEL ; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR ; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200 ; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16 ; Bronchorrheic ACM:200 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant KCH ; Congestant JPP46:16 ; Convulsant RJH ; Counterirritant DUKE1992B ; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652 ; Dermatitigenic M&R654 ; Diaphoretic KCH ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JPP46:16 ; Gastrosedative M11 ; Irritant JPP46:16 ; Myorelaxant M29 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurodepressant JPP46:16 ; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16 ; Nociceptive JPP46:16 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Refrigerant JPP46:16 ; Rubefacient DUKE1992B ; Termiticide 382 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

MENTHONE Shoot 150 ppm; JEO3:191

Acaricide X11124373 ; Allelopathic X12083883 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; FLavor FEMA 5-50 ARC ; Fungicide X12083883 ; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Mutagenic AEHD1:176 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive X12083883 ; Sedative JE25:165 ; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml FT67:279

MYRCENE Shoot 15 ppm; JEO3:191

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NONANAL Shoot 10 ppm; JEO3:191

No activity reported.

P-CYMENE Shoot 4 ppm; JEO3:191

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

PERILLALDEHYDE Shoot 710 ppm; JEO3:191

Acaricide X12137464 ; Antibacterial MIC=500->1,000 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic JNP65:953 ; Candidicide MIC=500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Fungicide MIC=250-500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Mutagenic PH2 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Sedative PH2 ; Vibriocide 250 ug/ml HH3

PIPERITENONE Shoot 45 ppm; JEO3:191

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=110 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Perfumery ARC ; Toxic 10,000/man ARC

PIPERITONE Shoot 20 ppm; JEO3:191

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-2 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 IC50=75 uM TOX ; Insectifuge (> DEET) JNP56:935 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PULEGONE Shoot 2,125 - 6,200 ppm JEO3:191

AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM JAF45:677 IC50=136 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antibacterial PM57:347 ; Anticholinesterase 453 ; Antihistaminic JPP42:295 ; Antipyretic JE25:165.1989 ; Avifuge DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PM57:347 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Encephalopathic 80 mg/kg orl rat LRN-JAN92 ; FLavor FEMA 5-30 ARC ; Fungicide PM57:347 ; Glutathionalytic LRN-JAN92 ; Hallucinogenic RJH ; Hepatotoxic PM56(2):226 ; Herbicide IC50=1.5 uM TOX ; Insecticide 453 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Nephrotoxic RJH ; Neurotoxic; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pulifuge DUKE1992B ; Pulmonotoxic; Sedative JE25:165.1989

SABINENE Shoot 20 ppm; JEO3:191

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

TERPINEN-4-OL Shoot 8 ppm; JEO3:191

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

THYMOL Shoot 5 ppm; JEO3:191

Acaricide X10826162 ; Allergenic M&R366 ; Analgesic MAD ; Ancylostomicide MAD ; Anesthetic MAD ; Ankylostomacide MAD ; Anthelmintic 411 ; Antiacne NIG ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.75 TRA42:511 ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml; Antibronchitic MAD ; Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Antilepric MAD ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 100 ppm MAR ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiradicular EC=60 JEO5:153 ; Antirheumatic 411 ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antiseptic 20 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antitrichinosic 5% MAD ; Antitussive IWU ; Ataxigenic ZEB ; Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin) JE58:143 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Counterirritant NIG ; Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Dentifrice ARC ; Deodorant MAR ; Dermatitigenic M&R366 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Enterotoxic WIC ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 2-100 ARC ; Fungicide M11 ; Gastroirritant M29 ; Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly JAF50:4576 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Larvicide 10 ppm 454 58 ppm X10701181 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Molluscicide PR13:649 ; Myorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Sprout-Inhibitor PER.COM.SFV ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Urinary-Antiseptic 411 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vermicide MAD

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Acinos genus



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

451: Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

454: Berenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:176: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DFN:161: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAN47(4): Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR4:24: J. Aromatherapy 4: 24.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE12:279.1984: Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.

JE25:165: Ortiz de Urbina, A.V., Martin*, M.L., Montero, M.J., Moran, A., and San Roman, L. 1988. Sedating and Antipyretic Activity of the Essential Oil of Calamintha sylvatica subsp. Ascendens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 25: 165-171, 1989.

JE25:165.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE58:143: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO3:191: Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Acinos suaveolens (Sibt. et Smith). G. Don fil. Growing in Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3:191-2.

JEO5:153: Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP56:935: Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:295: Ortiz De Urbina, A.V., Martin, M.L., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., Sevilla, M.A., San Roman, L. 1989. Antihistaminic activity of pulegone on the guinea-pig ileum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 295-296, 1990.

JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JAN92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-92.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-MAR92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-92.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R240: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R366: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R654: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R683: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

PER.COM.SFV: Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM56(2):226: Lewis, E.J. and Friedrich, E.C. 1989. The Essential Oil of Poliomintha incana. Planta Medica 56(2): 224-226, 1990.

PM57:347: Economou, D., and Nahrstedt, A. 1991. Chemical, Physiological, and Toxicological Aspects of the Essential Oil of Some Species of the Genus Bystropogon*. Planta Medica, 57: 347, 1991.

PMP25:184: Chalchat, J.C. et Garry, R.P.*, Bastide, P., Fabre, F. et Malhuret, R. Correlation Composition Chimique/Activite Antimicrobienne: V - Contribution a la Comparaison de 2 Methodes de Determination Des Cmi. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 25: 184-193.

PR13:649: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TR42:511: Jim Duke's personal files

TRA42:511: Tramil, 42: 511.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X10408241: Jim Duke's personal files

X10434134: Jim Duke's personal files

X10606544: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10823671: Jim Duke's personal files

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X18072821: Jim Duke's personal files

X19726096: Jim Duke's personal files

X2364470: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace


Thu Nov 5 11:02:49 EST 2015

Please send questions and comments to:

James A. Duke
Green Farmacy Garden
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759