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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Sorbus aucubaria L. (Rosaceae) -- Rowan Berry

Identifier

019271

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Sorbus aucubaria L. (Rosaceae) -- Rowan Berry


Chemicals

ALUMINUM Fruit 2 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

AMYGDALIN Fruit 343 - 617 ppm DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic PJB1(3):230 ; Antitussive OMM ; Bitter PJB1(3):230 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cyanogenic 52 ; Expectorant OMM ; Toxic PJB1(3):230

ARSENIC Fruit 0.01 - 0.04 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 39 - 2,650 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 7,300 - 57,690 ppm DUKE1992A Wood 6,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASOZONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Plant 62 - 98 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-SITOSTEROL Flower: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BORON Fruit 4 - 24 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

BROMINE Fruit 1 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CADMIUM Fruit 0.005 - 0.04 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive PAM ; Lithogenic PAM ; Nephrotoxic PAM

CAFFEIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Fruit 100 - 2,115 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CELLULOSE Wood 464,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hemostat M29

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CHROMIUM Fruit 0.02 - 0.19 ppm DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CINNAMIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antiinflammatory PMP25:55 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-40 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide DUKE1992B ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=700 uM; Vermifuge JE26:81

CITRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COBALT Fruit 0.005 - 0.08 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Fruit 0.8 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CRYPTOXANTHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Vitamin-A-Activity DUKE1992B

CYANIDIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC90=1 mM 438 ; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM JAF50:166 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

EPICATECHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC100=1 mM 438 ; Anabolic X16028976 ; Antiaggregant IC94=200 ug/ml PR13:597 ; Antianaphylactic; Antibacterial MIC=>1,000 ug/ml; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin PM57:A48 ; Antidiabetic 30 mg/kg rat; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant JCE27:251 ; Antihepatitic V&D ; AntiHIV EC50=2 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihyperglycemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml; Antilipoperoxidant PR13:597 ; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant 2.5 x Vit. E BO2 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=10.2 uM PR14:501 IC50=6.3 ug/ml CPB38:1049 ; Antiperoxidant JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choline-Sparing AFR27:149 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic AFR27:149 ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Insulinogenic EMP6:170 ; Interleukin-1-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Interleukin-6-mRNA-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=140 uM PCF IC97=5 mM JAF38:688 ; NO-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Pancreatogenic DUKE1992B ; Peroxynitrite-Scavenger IC50=0.181 ug/ml JAF48:5768 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic PH2 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=>40

EPICATECHIN-GALLATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticariogenic NR54:S51 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antimutagenic PCF:146 ; Antioxidant >10 x tocopherol PCF:142 ; Antiperoxidant PCF:93 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; COMP-Inhibitor JCN70:1040 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor NR54:S51 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=18 uM PCF ; Mitogen NR54:S51 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=>40 CPB38:1225

FAT Seed 210,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FLUORINE Fruit 0.2 - 1.5 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GLUCOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

HCN Fruit 20 - 37 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic KCH ; Antidote Ihl (=Amyl Nitrite) M29 ; Antitussive KCH ; Bronchosedative KCH ; Insecticide 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rodenticide M29 ; Vasomotor-Stimulant DUKE1992B

HEMICELLULOSE Wood 334,800 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Fruit 7 - 58 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOCHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PCF:64 ; Antiseptic JNP46(5) ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOQUERCITRIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor ID50=300 ug/ml rat (24 hr.) T15015 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antielastase IC50=0.7 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 450 ; Antiinflammatory X16248545 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant 1/4 quercetin IC50=9.0 uM PR14:501 ; Antiradicular 1/4 quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarigenic DUKE1992B ; Diaphoretic PJB1(3):242 ; Diuretic 10 ppm HHB ; Hypotensive CPB38:1049 ; Insectiphile JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 550 ug/ml AAC41:992

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-GLUCOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-BETA-SOPHOROSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LEAD Fruit 0.1 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LECITHIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 40-100 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antiataxic MAR ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidementia M29 ; Antidyskinetic 40-80 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antilithic DAS ; Antimanic PAM ; Antimorphinistic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antisclerodermic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antisprue DUKE1992B ; AntiTourette's 20-50 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Cholinergic MAR ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 20-30 g/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic M11

LIGNIN Wood 464,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticancer AFR27:209 ; Anticoronary AFR27:209 ; Antidiarrheic M29 ; AntiHIV DUKE1992B ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:209 ; Antioxidant AFR27:209 ; Antitumor AFR27:209 ; Antiviral CPB38:3033 ; Chelator AFR27:209 ; Hypocholesterolemic AFR27:209 ; Laxative AFR27:209 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MAGNESIUM Fruit 190 - 1,190 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit 19,000 - 39,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MANGANESE Fruit 12 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MERCURY Fruit 0.001 - 0.011 ppm DUKE1992A

Nephrotoxic PAM

METHYL-PENTOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MOLYBDENUM Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Esophagus)? DAS ; Antitumor (Esophagus)? DAS

NEO-CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Vulnerary CAN210

NICKEL Fruit 0.1 - 0.4 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

NITROGEN Fruit 2,100 - 11,900 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

P-COUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

PARASORBIC-ACID Fruit 400 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide DUKE1992B

PARASORBOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PECTIN Fruit 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PENTOSANS Wood 295,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHLOROGLUCINOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PMP23:54 ; Antispasmodic 480 mg/day/orl man M29 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:2737 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Decalcifier M11 ; Fungicide PC29(4):1093 ; Goitrogenic AFR27:188 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 360 - 1,880 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

POTASSIUM Fruit 2,900 - 13,075 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH

QUERCETIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

QUERCETIN-3-0-GALACTOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-BETA-SOPHOROSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RUBIDIUM Fruit 3 - 33 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RUTIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SELENIUM Fruit 0.001 - 0.011 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

SILICON Fruit 20 - 190 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

SORBIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Carcinogenic CRC ; FLavor FEMA ARC ; Fungicide M29 ; Irritant M&R599 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SORBICORTOLS Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SORBITOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic (Insulin-Sparing) 30 g/man/day MAR ; Antiketotic M11 ; Cataractagenic WER ; Cathartic JE26:82 ; Diuretic M11 ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-280,000 ARC ; Humectant JBH ; Laxative 20-50 g/day M29 5-15 g/man/day M28 ; Purgative 30-50 g/man/day MAR ; Sweetener 0.6 x sucrose M11

SORBOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SUCCINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SUGARS Fruit 31,000 - 80,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TANNINS Bark 44,700 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 4,000 - 6,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TARTARIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acidifier JBH ; Additive ARC ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; FLavor FEMA 500-10,000 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Sequestrant ARC

TOCOPHEROL Fruit: DUKE1992A

5-HETE-Inhibitor BO2 ; Allergenic NAH19(9):4 ; Analgesic 100 IU 3 x day WER ; Antiaggregant MAR ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antialzheimeran 2,000 IU SYN-X ; Antianginal 1,067 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiarteriosclerotic DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic PAM ; Antibronchitic DUKE1992B ; Anticancer (Breast) IC50=125 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Anticataract PIL ; Antichorea DUKE1992B ; Antichoreic DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Anticoronary 100-200 IU/day; Antidecubitic DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic PJB1(3):250 ; Antidiabetic 600-1,200 mg/day EMP6:164 ; Antidysmenorrheic DAS ; Antiepitheleomic PCF:20 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antiglycosation SYN-X ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiinflammatory SYN- ; Antiischemic JE29:31 ; Antileukemic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilithic 600 mg/day WER ; Antilupus DUKE1992B ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimastalgic DAS ; AntiMD DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic DUKE1992B ; AntiMS DUKE1992B ; Antimyoclonic PAM ; Antineuritic M29 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:20 ; Antiophthalmic DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic DAS ; Antioxidant IC36=10 uM JMF5:1 IC50=30 ug/ml CPB38:1051 IC95=650 uM PM56(6):678 ; Antiparkinsonian ARN45:1350 ; AntiPMS 300 IU 2 x day; Antiproliferant IC50=150 ug/ml JN:1997 ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antiretinopathic? M29 ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antisenility PJB1(3):250 ; Antisickling MAR ; Antispasmodic 300 mg/man/day MAR ; Antisterility PJB1(3):250 ; Antistroke DAS ; Antisunburn NAH18(9):4 ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antithalassemic DAS ; Antithrombotic 600 IU/day WER ; Antithromboxane-B2 SYN-X ; Antitoxemic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor 7 uM ckn PCF:19 ; Antitumor (Breast) 100-250 uM BO2 IC50=125 ug/ml SYN-X ; Antitumor (Colorectal) 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) 100-250 uM; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic 67 mg/man/3 x/day/orl; Apoptotic 100-250 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cerebroprotective KCH ; Circulatory-Stimulant DAS ; Circulotonic; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 100-450 IU/man/day; Hypoglycemic 600 IU/man/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 60-800 IU; Insulin-Sparing 1,000 IU WER ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor PAM ; NO-Inhibitor PIL ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor 400 mg/kg BO2 ; P21-Inducer 500-10,000 uM BO2 ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor BO2 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor 10-50 uM BO2 IC50=450 uM BO2 ; Vasodilator SYN-X

TRIMETHYLAMINE Flower: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:974

URSOLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

WATER Fruit 740,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Fruit 1 - 18 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Rowanberries

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:149: Singleton, V.L. 1981. Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants: Phenolic Substances of Plant Origin Common in Foods. Advances in Food Research 27: 149-217.

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:188: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:209: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARN45:1350: Jim Duke's personal files

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2737: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3033: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:164: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5768: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:166: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JCE27:251: Jim Duke's personal files

JCN70:1040: Dullo, A. G., et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, 70: 1040-1045.

JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE29:31: Jim Duke's personal files

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN:1997: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP46(5): J. Nat. Prod. 46(5).

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R599: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M28: Martindale's 28th

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH18(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NAH19(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S51: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1093: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:142: Osawa, T. Phenolic Antioxidants in Dietary Plants as Antimutagens.Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.11 p.142.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:20: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:64: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 64.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):230: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):250: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):678: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A48: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:54: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:55: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:597: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:501: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

T15015: Jim Duke's personal files

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

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YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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