Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) -- Black Elder, Elder, European Alder, European Elder, European Elderberry

Identifier

019278

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) -- Black Elder, Elder, European Alder, European Elder, European Elderberry


Chemicals

1-CAFFEOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-FERULOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

24-METHYL-CYCLOARTENOL Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

30-BETA-HYDROXYURSOLIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-AMYRENONE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-AMYRIN Bark: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC43=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory IC71=1,000 ppm orl FT63(1):3 ; Antinociceptive; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Cytotoxic 50-400 DUKE1992B ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Insectifuge X10701181

ALPHA-AMYRIN-PALMITATE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antianemic JE46:7 ; Antiarthritic 56-66 mg/kg orl rat JE46:7 ; Antifeedant HH2 ; Antihepatotoxic LRN-JUL92 ; Antiinflammatory JE46:7

ALPHA-HYDROXYBEHENIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANTIRHININ Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARACHIDIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASTRAGALIN Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor ID50=180 ug/ml rat (24 hr.) T15015 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC30=1 uM DUKE1992B IC62=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antileukemic DUKE1992B ; Expectorant DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive CPB38:1049 ; Immunostimulant DUKE1992B

BEHENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Cosmetic JBH

BETA-AMYRIN Flower: DUKE1992A

Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC27=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory X8987908 ; Antinociceptive; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181

BETA-AMYRIN-PALMITATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidepressant JPS81:620 ; Antihepatotoxic LRN-JUL92 ; Sedative JPP45:545

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 100 - 150 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 150 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-SITOSTEROL Bark: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETULIN Bark: JAD Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticarcinomic PJB1(3):232 ; Antifeedant JAF38:494 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; AntiHIV 6.1 uM JNP66:263 ; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF38:493 ; Cytotoxic 600 ppm DUKE1992B 8.6 uM JNP66:263 ; Hypolipemic PMP23:49 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=119 uM YHH30:621 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=38.6 uM JNP64:1545

BIOTIN Fruit 0.007 - 0.009 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialopecic JLR1(2) ; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day PAM ; Antineuralgic JN127:710 ; Antiseborrheic PAM

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM-NITRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM-OXALATE Plant: DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CAMPESTEROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CAPRIFOLIC-ACID Seed 20,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAPRONIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAPRYLIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CERYL-ALCOHOL Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CHOLESTEROL Hh: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC43=10 uM JMF5:1

CHOLINE Bark: DUKE1992A Flower: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CHRYSANTHEMIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CONIINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Emetic M11 ; Paralytic M11

CYANIDIN-3-SAMBUBIOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-SAMBUBIOSIDE-5-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiviral EMP5:197 ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH

CYCLOARTENOL Flower: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial FT63(1):82 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man DFN:160 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(1):82 ; Hypocholesterolemic NR11:S120 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

DEXTROSE Fruit 25,000 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.74 x sucrose MAR

EMULSIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Flower 37 - 3,200 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-AMINE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Leaf 48,200 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 123,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Fruit 63,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

GLUCOSIDES Plant 640 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HENEICOSANE Plant 23,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXEN-2-AL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INVERTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-AMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYL-AMINE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOQUERCITRIN Flower: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor ID50=300 ug/ml rat (24 hr.) T15015 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antielastase IC50=0.7 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 450 ; Antiinflammatory X16248545 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant 1/4 quercetin IC50=9.0 uM PR14:501 ; Antiradicular 1/4 quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarigenic DUKE1992B ; Diaphoretic PJB1(3):242 ; Diuretic 10 ppm HHB ; Hypotensive CPB38:1049 ; Insectiphile JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 550 ug/ml AAC41:992

KAEMPFEROL Flower: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

LAURIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial TFLNO.86 ; Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Antiviral TFLNO.86 ; Candidicide X11600381 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100 JAF50:2231 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100 JAF50:2231 ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS

LEVULOSE Fruit 21,000 - 29,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Sweetener 1.73 x sucrose MAR

LINOLEIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LUPEOL Flower: DUKE1992A

Antiangiogenic 30-50 ug/ml PR4:341 ; AntiEBV JNP65:645 ; Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; Antihyperglycemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin PM60:516 ; Antilithic 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antioxidant FT67:121 ; Antiperoxidant FT67:121 ; Antiprostaglandin X11732756 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiurethrotic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JNP67:344 ; Cytotoxic 50-500 ppm DUKE1992B ; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml JNP59:658 ; Hypotensive JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor IC50=10.4 uM JNP64:1545

MALIC-ACID Fruit 9,000 - 19,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MYRISTIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

N-HENTRIACONTANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Cosmetic JBH ; Diuretic DUKE1992B

N-HEPTACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-HEXACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

N-NONACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235

N-OCTACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PENTACOSANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-TRIACONTANE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Fruit 4 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NICOTINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antichilblain 50 mg/3x/day DAS ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidote (pesticides) DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 1-6 g/man/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Lipolytic DAS

OLEANOLIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161

OLEIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

P-COUMARIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

PALMITIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PECTIN Leaf 2,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PROTEIN Fruit 25,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 269,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

RESIN Leaf 43,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Plant 0.6 - 0.7 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

RUTIN Flower: DUKE1992A Leaf 210 - 9,200 ppm DUKE1992A

5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SAMBUBIOSE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAMBUCINE Plant 1,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAMBUCYANIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SAMBUNIGRIN Leaf 420 ppm; DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1 mM/l rat (weak activity) CPB43:920 ; Cyanogenic PC29(6):1903

SHIKIMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic MEDSCAPE'89 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticonvulsant HDN ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antispasmodic GMJ ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Carcinogenic M11 ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:508 ; Mutagenic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

STEARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STIGMASTEROL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

SUGAR Fruit 47,000 - 58,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TANNIN Leaf 4,400 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

THIAMIN Plant 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRICOSANE Flower 18,720 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TYROSINE Fruit 2,200 - 2,900 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

UNDECYLENIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Deodorant CPA ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

URSOLIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A Flower: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

VALERIANIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B

WATER Fruit 791,000 - 819,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Elderberries

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:211: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BCI28:735: Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPA: Can. Pharm. Assoc. Medication. 1988

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB43:920: Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):82: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:121: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:493: Lugemwa, F.N., Huang, F-Y., Bentley, M.D., Mendel, M.J., and Alford, A.R. 1990. A Heliothis zea Antifeedant from the Abundant Birchbark Triterpene Betulin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(2): 493-494.

JAF38:494: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JE46:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JLR1(2): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:710: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP54:455: Aquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:658: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:645: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP45:545: Jim Duke's personal files

JPS81:620: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF351: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUL92: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MEDSCAPE'89: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29(6):1903: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):232: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:501: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:341: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

T15015: Jim Duke's personal files

TFLNO.86: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

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ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Tue Oct 27 16:42:03 EDT 2015