Observations placeholder

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Phellodendron amurense -- Amur Cork Tree, Huang Bai, Huang Po, Po Mu

Identifier

018321

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Phellodendron amurense RUPR. (Rutaceae) -- Amur Cork Tree, Huang Bai, Huang Po, Po Mu


Chemicals

7-DEHYDROSTIGMASTEROL Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AMURENSINE Leaf 400 - 10,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic JBH ; Expectorant JBH ; Tranquilizer JBH

BERBERINE Bark 8,300 - 10,000 ppm DUKE1992A

(+)-Inotropic MAB ; Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Adrenolytic MAB ; Amebicide 200 ug/ml PAM EC83=100 ug/ml orl rat MAB ; Analgesic LRN-JUL91 ; Anesthetic LRN-JUL91 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase; Antiacne MAB ; Antiadrenergic KCH ; Antiaggregant; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antiamnesic MAB ; Antiangiogenic X15322253 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic COX ; Antibacillus MIC=200 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antibacterial 100 mg/4x/day LRN-JUL91 12.5-2,500 ug/ml PAM MIC=6-630 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antibiotic PAM ; Anticancer; Anticariogenic MAB ; Antichlamydial PH2 ; Anticholecystitic 5-20 mg/3x/day/orl PAM ; Anticholera 150 mg/man/day MAR ; Anticirrhotic PAM ; Anticonjunctivitic 0.2% PAM ; Anticonvulsant 411 ; Antidiarrheic 100 mg/4x/day LRN-JUL91 ; Antidysenteric; Antiedemic MAB ; Antiendotoxic CAN ; Antienterotoxic PAM ; Antiesherichic; Antigiardial 10 mg/kg/day 414 ; Antiglaucomic AHP136 ; Antigonorrhea PJB1(3):231 ; Antihepatomic MAB ; Antihepatotic PMP25:62 ; Antiherpetic FEL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory; Antiischemic MAB ; Antileishmanic 10 ug/ml PR4(4):132 ; Antilipogenic IC63=10 uM MAB ; Antimalarial 0.14-0.36 ug/ml JE32:161 50 uM PR4(4):132 ; Antimitotic MAB ; Antimuscarinic CAN ; Antimyalgic FEL ; Antimycotic MAB ; Antineoplastic LRN-JUN87 ; Antinephritic PMP25:62 ; Antiperistaltic BRU ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiphotooxidative JAF48:1058 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipyretic 3 x aspirin; Antisalmonella PJB1(3):231 ; Antisecretory; Antiseptic 25 ug/ml; Antishigellic 12.5 ug/ml PAM ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Antispermigenic JE32:173 ; Antistaphylococcic PJB1(3):231 ; Antistrep PAM ; Antisyphilitic FEL ; Antitrachomic 0.2%; Antitrypanosomic 411 ; Antitubercular MIC=25 ug/ml; Antitumor (brain) IC91=150 ug/ml W&M ; Antiulcer; Antivaginitic KCH ; Antiviral KCH ; Astringent DUKE1992B ; Bilirubinolytic PH2 ; Calcium-Antagonist MAB ; Candidicide 414 ; Cardiodepressant KCH ; Cardiotonic; Carminative CAN ; Cholagogue AEHD1:99 ; Cholekinetic; Choleretic 411 ; Collyrium DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Digestive AHP137 ; Diuretic AHP137 ; Emetic AEHD1:101 ; Fungicide 12.5-150 ug/ml PAM ; Glaucomagenic AHP136 ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic JE27:243 ; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunostimulant; Lachrymatory MAB ; Larvicide 9 ppm JCE10:115 ; Leucocytogenic PH2 ; Lipase-Inhibitor MED ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=118 uM PM60:421 ; Mutagenic; Mycobactericide MIC=25-50 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Mydriatic MAB ; Myocardiodepressant DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant AHP137 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phototoxic 9 ppm JCE10:115 ; Plasmodicide IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml POP:117 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 25 mg/kg ivn rbt CHP12:526 ; Protisticide IC50=0.14-0.36 ug/ml POP:117 ; Respiradepressant MAR ; RNA-Depressant DUKE1992B ; RT-Inhibitor EMP5:222 ; Sedative; Stomachic PJB1(1) ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 2.5 uM PM61:414 ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Trypanocide; Uterocontractant; Uterotonic 411 ; Vagostimulant man AHP136 ; Vasoconstrictor 414 ; Vasodilator 2 mg/kg cat AHP136 ; Vermifuge PJB1(1) ; Vibriofuge LRN-JUL91

BETA-SITOSTEROL Bark: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

CALCIUM Bark 14,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPESTEROL Bark: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC37=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAD

CANDICINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Curare JBH ; Epileptigenic JE38:1 ; Hypertensive JBH ; Nicotinic JBH

COPPER Bark 6 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

DIHYDROPHELLOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Cr 517,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FLAVONOIDS Fruit 100,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GUANIDINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Antimyasthenic 10-35 mg/kg/day DUKE1992B ; Convulsant DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Hypertensive DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Myostimulant JAD

HYPERIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial PJB1(1):177 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive FT1990:501 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

IRON Bark 210 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

JATRORRHIZINE Bl: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antimalarial IC50=0.42-1.61 ug/ml; Antiphotooxidative JAF48:1058 ; Antiplasmodial POP:117 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Enterotonic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide 411 ; Hypotensive 411 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide POP:117 ; Sedative 411 ; Uterocontractant MAB

LIMONIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticataleptic CPB38:2334 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MAGNESIUM Bark 650 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MAGNOFLORINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antineuromuscular ED50=10 mg/kg; Antispasmodic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; Curaroid <1% tubocurarine HDN ; Hypotensive; PAF-Inhibitor FT62:150 ; Paralytic HDN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Toxic HDN ; Vasodilator KCH

MANGANESE Bark 20 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MENISPERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Antineuromuscular DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B

METHYL-N-HEPTYL-KETONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-N-NONYL-KETONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NOR-ICARISID(8-(3-BETA-GLUCOSIDE-OXYISOPENTYL)-KAEMPFEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OBACULACTONE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OBACUNONE Bark: DUKE1992A

Anticataleptic CPB38:2334 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PALMATINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Adrenocorticotrophic DUKE1992B ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antialzheimeran? 411 ; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticholinesterase 411 ; Antiinfarctal PMP25:57 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antimalarial PR4(4):131 ; Antipyretic GMJ ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 411 ; Inotropic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiradepressant DUKE1992B ; Uterotonic 411

PHELLAMURETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLAMURINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLATINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLAVINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLODENDRINE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLODENDROSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHELLOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Bark 4,370 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Seed 358,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SODIUM Bark 55 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

ZINC Bark 26 ppm; DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Beta sitosterol
Po Mu

Commonsteps

References

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

414: Jim Duke's personal files

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:101: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:99: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP136: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP137: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CHP12:526: Huang, C. G., Chu, Z. L., Yang, Z. M. 1991. Effect of Berberine on Synthesis of Platelet TXA2 and Plasma PGI2 in Rabbits. Chung-Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao, 12(6): 526-528.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:2334: Jim Duke's personal files

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:222: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:501: Jim Duke's personal files

FT62:150: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1058: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE10:115: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE32:161: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:173: Jim Duke's personal files

JE38:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-JUL91: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN87: Jim Duke's personal files

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):231: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM60:421: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:414: Kobayashi, Y, Yamashita, Y., Fujii, N., Takaboshi, K., Kawakami, T., Kawamura, M., Mizukami, T., Nakano, H. 1995. Inhibitors of DNA Topoisomerase I and II Isolated From the Coptis Rhizomes. Planta Medica, 61: 414-418.

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:57: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:62: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:117: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(4):131: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(4):132: Jim Duke's personal files

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

W&M: Werbach & Murray, 1994.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10606544: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085358: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X12587690: Jim Duke's personal files

X13677356: Jim Duke's personal files

X15322253: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace