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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) -- Banana, Plantain



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) -- Banana, Plantain



No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Allergenic; Antidepressant; Antidote (Manganese) to 3 g/man/day; Antimutilation; Antiparkinsonian; Antitourette 400 mg/4x/day/orl/man; Cancer-Preventive; Cerebrophilic; Hypertensive; Insecticide; Pesticide; Secretogogue; Spasmogenic; Ulcerogenic; Vasoconstrictor


No activity reported.


Acidulant; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm; Antiotitic; Antisalmonella; Antivaginitic 1-2%; Expectorant; Fungicide; Keratitigenic; Mucolytic; Osteolytic; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm; Pesticide; Protisticide; Spermicide; Ulcerogenic; Verrucolytic

ALANINE Fruit 390 - 1,515 ppm

Antioxidant; Cancer-Preventive; Oxidant

ALPHA-CAROTENE Fruit 0.12 - 0.36 ppm

Anticancer; Anticancer (Liver); Anticancer (Lung); Anticancer (Skin); Antiproliferant 10 x beta-carotene; Colorant; Previtamin-A


No activity reported.

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Fruit 330 - 1,282 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiaggregant; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Antimenorrhagic; Antimetastatic; Antiprostatitic; Cancer-Preventive; Hypotensive; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml; Propecic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn; Vasodilator

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Hull Husk 30 ppm;

Antialzheimeran; Antianginal; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticancer; Anticataract; Anticonvulsant Synergen; Antidementia; Antidiabetic; Antiinfarctal; Antiinfertility; Antiischemic; Antimaculitic; Antimutagenic; Antineuropathic; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin IC34=10 uM; Antiparkinsonian; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin; Antiretinotic; Antirheumatic; Antistroke; Antitumor; Antitumor (Bladder); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor-Promoter; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator

ALUMINUM Fruit 1 - 35 ppm

Antisilicotic; Antivaginitic; Candidicide; Encephalopathic; Pesticide



AMYLOSE Fruit 205,000 ppm;

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

ARGININE Fruit 470 - 1,826 ppm

Antidiabetic?; Antiencephalopathic; Antihepatitic; Antihypertensive; Antiimpotence; Antiinfertility 4 g/day; Antioxidant?; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic; Hypoammonemic; NO-Genic; Pituitary-Stimulant; Spermigenic 4 g/day; Vasodilator

ARSENIC Fruit 0.04 - 0.35 ppm

Anorexic; Pesticide

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 88 - 367 ppm Hull Husk 1,380 ppm;

Acidulant FEMA 6,000; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day; Antiaggregant; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day 400 mg/day; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day; Antidementia; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Cadmium); Antidote (Lead); Antidote (Paraquat); Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day; Antiencephalitic; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day; Antigastritic; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day; Antihangover 1,000 mg; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive; Antiinfertility 1 g/day; Antiinflammatory; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day; Antimigraine; Antimutagenic; Antineuramidase; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day; Antiorchitic; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day; Antipneumonic; Antipodriac; Antipoliomyelitic; Antipyretic; Antiradicular; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day; Antiretinotic; Antirheumatic; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml; Antishingles; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day; Antitumor (Gastric); Antitumor (Lung); Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man; Calcium-Antagonist; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day; Collagenic; Detoxicant; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl; Fistula-Preventive; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Interferonogenic; Lithogenic; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day; Pesticide; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day; Urinary-Acidulant; Vasodilator; Vulnerary


No activity reported.

ASH Flower 12,000 ppm; Fruit 7,100 - 31,900 ppm Hull Husk 121,000 ppm; Leaf 88,000 ppm; Pith 6,000 ppm; Shoot 11,710 - 158,300 ppm Sprout Seedling 143,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

ASPARTIC-ACID Fruit 1,130 - 4,390 ppm

Antimorphinic; Neuroexcitant; Roborant

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 0.4 - 2.1 ppm Hull Husk 0.6 - 16.6 ppm

Allergenic; Androgenic?; Antiacne; Antiaging; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic; Anticervicaldysplasic; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant; Antiozenic; Antipapillomic; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day; Antipityriasic; AntiPMS; Antiporphyric; Antiproliferant; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular; Antirheumatic; Antistress; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml; Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl 15,000-25,000 IU/day; Antixerophthalmic; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm; Chemopreventive; Colorant; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml; Gastroprotective; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl; Interferon-Synergist; Mucogenic; Phagocytotic; Prooxidant 20 ug/g; Thymoprotective; Ubiquiot


Androgenic; Angiogenic; Anorexic; Antiadenomic; Antiandrogenic; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer (Cervix); Anticancer (Lung); Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant; Antifertility; Antigonadotrophic; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic; Antilymphomic; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM; Antiprogestational; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks; Antiprostatadenomic; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Lung); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Caspase-8-Inducer; Estrogenic; Febrifuge; Gonadotrophic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide; Spermicide; Ubiquiot; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat


Antialopecic; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day; Antineuralgic; Antiseborrheic



BORON Fruit 1 - 17.7 ppm

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day; Antiosteoarthritic; Antiosteoporotic; Estrogenic

BROMINE Fruit 0.3 - 27 ppm

No activity reported.

BUTYRIC-ACID Fruit: Plant:

Anticancer; Antitumor; Apoptotic; Bruchifuge; Nematistat 880 ug/ml; Pesticide


Hypertensive; Lithogenic; Nephrotoxic

CALCIUM Flower 300 ppm; Fruit 40 - 460 ppm Leaf 7,500 ppm; Pith 100 ppm; Sprout Seedling 11,600 ppm;

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Lead); Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day; Antitic; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day; Hypotensive 1 g/day; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day; Vasodilator

CALCIUM-PECTATE Fruit 42,000 ppm;

No activity reported.


Antioxidant IC37=10 uM; Hypocholesterolemic

CAPRIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 39 ppm

Fungicide; Irritant; Pesticide


No activity reported.


Antiseptic; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant; Pesticide

CARBOHYDRATES Flower 50,000 ppm; Fruit 234,300 - 910,256 ppm Hull Husk 631,000 ppm; Leaf 695,000 ppm; Pith 97,000 ppm; Shoot 39,000 - 527,000 ppm Sprout Seedling 810,000 ppm;

No activity reported.





CHLORINE Fruit 1,250 ppm;

Antibacterial; Antiherpetic; Antiseptic; Antiviral; Candidicide; Fungicide; Pesticide

CHLOROPHYLL Hull Husk 52 - 103 ppm

Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Liver); Antidecubitic; Antihalitosic; Antimenorrhagic 25 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antimutagenic; Antiotitic; Antioxidant; Antirhinitic; Antisinusitic; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Colorant; Deodorant; Dye; Oxidant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Vulnerary


Antioxidant IC43=10 uM

CHROMIUM Fruit 0.02 - 0.15 ppm

Amphiglycemic?; Antiacne; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug; Antiaging; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug; Anticorneotic; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead); Antifatigue 200 ug; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Cardioprotective; Energizer; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Insulinogenic; Memorigenic


Allergenic; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticalculic; Anticoagulant; Antileishmanic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Disinfectant; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400; Hemostat; Irritant; Laxative?; Litholytic; Mycobactericide; Odontolytic; Refrigerant


Cardiomyopathogenic; Erythrocytogenic

COPPER Fruit 1 - 7 ppm

Antianemic; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective; Contraceptive; Hypocholesterolemic; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic

CYANIDIN Inflorescence:

Allelochemic IC90=1 mM; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM; Metal-Chelator (Copper); Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant


Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man; Antistaphylococcic; Hypocholesterolemic; Pesticide; Ubiquiot


Antibacterial; Antistaphylococcic; Pesticide


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

CYSTINE Fruit 170 - 660 ppm

Adjuvant; Antihomocystinuric


No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN Inflorescence: Plant:

Allelochemic IC81=1 mM; Allergenic; Antioxidant ID50=0.7-2.4 uM; Cancer-Preventive; Metal-Chelator (Copper); NO-Inhibitor IC78=250 uM; Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant

DOPA Fruit:


DOPAMINE Fruit: Hull Husk 700 ppm;

Adrenergic; Antilactagogue; Antimyocontractant; Antineurogenic; Antiparkinsonian; Antiprolactin; Antishock; Antithyreotropic; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Hypertensive; Inotropic; Myocontractant 10 uM; Natriuretic; Neurotransmitter; Priapistic; Sympathomimetic; Teratogenic; Vasoconstrictor; Vasodilator


Antitumor; Lubricant

FAT Flower 2,000 ppm; Fruit 3,450 - 23,693 ppm Hull Husk 87,000 ppm; Leaf 118,000 ppm; Pith 1,000 ppm; Shoot 8,480 - 115,000 ppm Sprout Seedling 23,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

FIBER Flower 19,000 ppm; Fruit 5,000 - 19,425 ppm Hull Husk 100,000 ppm; Leaf 240,000 ppm; Pith 8,000 ppm; Shoot 13,210 - 178,600 ppm Sprout Seedling 205,000 ppm;

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antidiabetic; Antihypertensive; Antiobesity; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Beta-Blocker; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl; Hypouricemic; Laxative; Vasodilator

FLUORINE Fruit 0.1 - 0.4 ppm

No activity reported.

FOLACIN Fruit 0.2 - 0.9 ppm

Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl; Anticheilitic; Antidepressant; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man; Antiglossitic; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man; Antineuropathic; Antiperiodontitic; Antiplaque; Antipsychotic; AntiSpina-Bifida; Hematopoietic; Uricosuric; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor


Acaricide; Antiseptic; Antisyncopic; Astringent; Corrosive; Counterirritant; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500; Fungistat; Fungitoxic; Irritant; Pesticide; Preservative; Toxic

FRUCTOSE Fruit 35,000 ppm;

Antialcoholic; Antidiabetic; Antihangover; Antiketotic; Antinauseant; Laxative; Neoplastic; Sweetener 2 x glucose

GABA Fruit:

Analeptic; Anticephalagic; Anticerebrotic; Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day; Anticonvulsant 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus; Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilethargic; Antistress; Antitinnitic; Anxiolytic; Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog; CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat 100 mg/kg ivn dog 2,500 mg/kg scu mus; Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day; Hypotensive 1,000-4,000 mg/day; Neuroinhibitor; Neurotoxic (to birds); Neurotransmitter; Sedative; Tranquilizer


No activity reported.


Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Fruit 45,000 ppm;

Acetylcholinergic; Antiedemic; Antihepatotoxic; Antiketotic; Antivaricose; Hyperglycemic; Memory-Enhancer

GLUTAMIC-ACID Fruit 1,110 - 4,312 ppm

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man; Antiepileptic; Antihyperammonemic; Antilithic; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day; Antiretardation; Anxiolytic; Neurotoxic


No activity reported.


Cholesterolytic; Diuretic; Hepatotonic

GLYCINE Fruit 370 - 1,437 ppm

Antiacid; Antialdosteronic; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A); Antiencephalopathic; Antigastritic; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day; Antipruritic; Antisickling; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Neuroinhibitor; Uricosuric


Cholesterolytic; Diuretic; Hepatotonic; Irritant


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

HISTIDINE Fruit 810 - 3,147 ppm

Antiarteriosclerotic; Antinephritic; Antioxidant; Antiulcer; Antiuremic; Essential; Oxidant


Allelochemic; Cancer-Preventive; Herbicide; Hypoglycemic; Insulinase-Inhibitor; Insulinotonic; Pesticide

INOSITOL Fruit 340 ppm;

Antialopecic; Anticirrhotic; Antidiabetic?; Antineuropathic? 2 g/day; Cholesterolytic 2,000 mg/man/day; Lipotropic; Sweetener; Ubiquiot


No activity reported.

IRON Flower 1 ppm; Fruit 3 - 25 ppm Pith 11 ppm;

Antiakathisic; Antianemic; Anticanker; Anticheilitic; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl; Prooxidant


No activity reported.

ISOLEUCINE Fruit 330 - 1,282 ppm

Antiencephalopathic?; Antipellagric; Essential


No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL Fruit: Plant:

11B-HSD-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm IC50=8.73 uM; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml; Antihistaminic; Antiimplantation; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg 200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml; Antilymphocytic; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin IC50=1.2 ug/ml IC50=40 uM; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml; Antiplaque; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Choleretic; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic; Diaphoretic?; Diuretic; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l EC50=0.56 uM; Fungicide 20 ug/ml; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm IC50=5.46 uM; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml; Hypotensive; ICAM-1-Inhibitor; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM IC50=<15 uM; Inotropic; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor; JNK-Inhibitor; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor; Mutagenic; Natriuretic; Neuroprotective; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM; PAF-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Protisticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Vasodilator

KILOCALORIES Fruit 920 - 3,574 /kg

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

LATEX Hull Husk 20,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Fruit 20 - 78 ppm

Antibacterial; Antioxidant IC71=60; Antiviral; Candidicide; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100; Hypercholesterolemic

LEAD Fruit 0.02 - 0.2 ppm

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Fruit 710 - 2,758 ppm

Antiencephalopathic; Essential




Antiinflammatory; Antineoplastic


Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticoronary; Antidiarrheic; AntiHIV; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant; Antitumor; Antiviral; Chelator; Hypocholesterolemic; Laxative; Pesticide

LINOLEIC-ACID Fruit 560 - 2,176 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne; Antialopecic; Antianaphylactic; Antiandrogenic; Antiarteriosclerotic; Antiarthritic; Anticoronary; Antieczemic; Antifibrinolytic; Antigranular; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Antimenorrhagic; AntiMS; Antiprostatitic; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Comedolytic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic; Immunomodulator; Insectifuge; Metastatic; Nematicide; Propecic


No activity reported.

LUTEIN Fruit 0.033 - 0.1 ppm

Antiatherosclerotic; Anticancer (Breast); Antimaculitic; Antinyctalopic; Antioxidant; Antiproliferant; Antiradicular; Antiretinitic Optometry; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Colorant; Prooxidant 5-40 ug/g; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 2.5 ug; Retinoprotectant Optometry; Ubiquiot

LYSINE Fruit 480 - 1,865 ppm

Antialkalotic; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg

MAGNESIUM Fruit 277 - 1,465 ppm

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic; Antianginal; Antianorectic; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic; AntiCFS; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant; Anticoronary 400 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day; Antienterotic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic; Antiglaucomic; Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antihypoglycemic; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilithic; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man; Antimitral-valve-prolapse; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day; Antispasmodic; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day; Antistress 500-750 mg/day; Antistroke 400 mg/day; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective; CNS-Depressant; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit 530 - 3,730 ppm

Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Bacteristat; Bruchiphobe; Hemopoietic; Laxative?; Mycobactericide; Pesticide; Sialogogue




Antidiabetic; Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose

MALVIDIN Inflorescence:

Antifertility; Antioxidant; Antiperiodontal; Antiplaque; Pigment; Prooxidant

MANGANESE Fruit 1.4 - 18 ppm

Antialcoholic; Antianemic; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day; Antidiscotic; Antidyskinetic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic; Antioxidant; AntiPMS; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day; Hypoglycemic

MERCURY Fruit 0.001 - 0.007 ppm


METHIONINE Fruit 110 - 427 ppm

Anticataract; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl; Antidote (Paracetamol); Antieczemic; Antihepatotic; Antioxidant; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day; Cancer-Preventive; Emetic; Essential; Glutathionigenic; Hepatoprotective; Lipotropic; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl; Urine-Deodorant

MFA Fruit 410 - 1,593 ppm

No activity reported.


Anticancer (Esophagus)?; Antitumor (Esophagus)?

MUFA Fruit 410 - 1,593 ppm

Allergenic; Anemiagenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery

MYRISTIC-ACID Fruit 30 - 117 ppm

Antioxidant IC71=60; Cancer-Preventive; Cosmetic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide

NEO-BETA-CAROTENE-U Hull Husk 0.1 - 0.3 ppm

No activity reported.

NIACIN Flower 6 ppm; Fruit 5 - 23 ppm Hull Husk 50 ppm; Pith 2 ppm;

Allergenic; Antiacrodynic; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day; Antialzheimeran; Antiamblyopic; Antianginal; Anticataract; Antichilblain; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day; Antidementia; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antidysphagic; Antiepileptic; Antihangover 50 mg; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's; Antineuralgic; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day; Antipellagric; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day; Antiscotomic; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day; Antivertigo; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Fibrinolytic; Hepatoprotective; Hepatotoxic; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Sedative; Serotoninergic; Vasodilator

NICKEL Fruit 0.01 - 0.1 ppm

Antiadrenalinic; Anticirrhotic?; Insulin-Sparing

NITROGEN Fruit 1,600 - 15,000 ppm

No activity reported.


Antimutagenic 250 ug/mL; Antiviral

NOREPINEPHRINE Fruit: Hull Husk 122 ppm;

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

OLEIC-ACID Fruit 270 - 1,049 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Anemiagenic; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery; Propecic

OXALIC-ACID Fruit 22 - 5,240 ppm Leaf:

Acaricide; Antiseptic; CNS-Paralytic; Fatal; Hemostatic; Irritant; Pesticide; Renotoxic; Varroacide


No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Fruit 1,250 - 4,856 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antifibrinolytic; Antioxidant IC40=60; FLavor FEMA 1; Hemolytic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide; Pesticide; Propecic; Soap

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Fruit 120 - 466 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Soap

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 2.6 - 10.1 ppm

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic; Anticlaudificant?; Antidermatitic; Antifatigue; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal; Antiielus?; Antiinsomniac?; Antirheumatitic?; Cancer-Preventive

PECTIN Fruit 7,000 - 40,000 ppm Hull Husk 3,800 - 12,800 ppm

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day; Antibacterial; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic; Antienteritic; Antigallstone; Antigastritic; Antilithic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic; Antiobesity; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitussive; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Demulcent; Fungicide; Hemostat; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic; Peristaltic; Pesticide

PELARGONIDIN Inflorescence:

Antiherpetic; Antioxidant ID50=85-456 uM; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Pesticide; Pigment; Prooxidant

PEONIDIN Inflorescence:

Larvistat; Pesticide; Pigment


No activity reported.

PETUNIDIN Inflorescence:

Larvistat; Pesticide; Pigment

PHENYLALANINE Fruit 380 - 1,476 ppm

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man; Monoamine-Precursor; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day


No activity reported.


Acidulant; Additive; FLavor FEMA 500-5,000; Sequestrant

PHOSPHORUS Flower 500 ppm; Fruit 200 - 1,190 ppm Leaf 2,400 ppm; Pith 100 ppm;

Antiosteoporotic; Anxiolytic; Immunostimulant; Osteogenic

PHYTOSTEROLS Fruit 160 - 622 ppm

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic


Herbistat; Pesticide

POTASSIUM Fruit 3,100 - 16,150 ppm

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antiarrhythmic; Antidepressant; Antifatigue; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic; Antistroke; Anxiolytic; Beta-Blocker; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Vasodilator

PROLINE Fruit 400 - 1,554 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

PROTEIN Flower 61,000 ppm; Fruit 10,040 - 41,026 ppm Leaf 99,000 ppm; Pith 5,000 ppm; Shoot 18,930 - 255,900 ppm Sprout Seedling 24,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

PUFA Fruit 890 - 3,458 ppm

Antiacne; Antieczemic; AntiMS; Antipolyneuritic


FLavor FEMA 1-110

QUERCETIN Fruit: Plant:

11B-HSD-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml IC50=0.344 uM IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM IC50=7.5 ppm; Antiaggregant 30 uM IC50=55 uM; Antiaging; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic; Antiangiogenic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml; Anticataract; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day; Anticomplementary; AntiCrohn's; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks; Antidepressant; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml; Antiencephalitic; Antiescherichic; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet; Antifibrosarcomic; Antiflu; Antigastric; Antigonadotropic; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV; Antihydrophobic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg; Antileishmanic IC50=64; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM IC50=10 uM IC50=>10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml ID50=2-5 nM; Antimyocarditic; Antinitrosaminic; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E ED50=2.3 uM IC47=10 uM IC96=300 ppm; Antipancreatitic; Antiperiodontal; Antiperistaltic; Antipermeability; Antiperoxidant; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn; Antipodriac; Antipolio; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid; Antiprostatitic; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml; Antithiamin; Antithrombic; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder); Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml IC50=10 uM; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml; Bradycardiac; Calmodulin-Antagonist; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Capillariprotective; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus; Catabolic; COMT-Inhibitor; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml IC82=100 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Diaphoretic?; Differentiator 5.5 uM; Estrogenic 10% genistein; Fungicide; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat; Hepatoprotective; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic; Insulinogenic; Juvabional; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM IC50=0.1-5 uM; MAO-A-Inhibitor; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer; Metal-Chelator (Copper); Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM; Mutagenic; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM IC>50=125 uM; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM; Pesticide; PGE2-Inhibitor; Phospholipase-Inhibitor; Plasmodicide; Proliferant; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM; Teratologic; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM IC50=10.6 ug/ml IC50=>0.4 ug/ml




No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 1 - 3.9 ppm

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day; Anticataract 15 mg/day; Anticephalagic; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day; Anticheilitic; Antidecubitic; Antiglossitic; Antikeratitic; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; Antimigraine; Antioxidant; Antipellagric; Antiphotophobic; Cancer-Preventive

RUBIDIUM Fruit 2.5 - 20 ppm

No activity reported.

RUTIN Fruit:

5-HT-Inhibitor; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml; Allelochemic; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic; Antiapoplectic; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man; Anticataract; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day; Antihematuric; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic; Antihistaminic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM IC54=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal; Antipurpuric; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Capillariprotective; Catabolic; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM; Estrogenic?; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Insecticide; Insectiphile; Juvabional; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM; Mutagenic; Myoprotective; Myorelaxant; Oviposition-Stimulant; PAF-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Protisticide; Radioprotective; Sunscreen; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml; Vasodilator; Vasopressor

SELENIUM Fruit 0.001 - 0.04 ppm

Analgesic 200 ug/day; Anorexic; Antiacne; Antiaggregant; Antiangiogenic 2 uM 230 ug/kg orl rat; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticataract 400 ug/day; Anticirrhotic; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day; Anticoronary; Antidandruff; Antidepressant; Antidote (Mercury); Antifibrotic 400 ug; Antigout 200 ug; AntiHIV; Antikeshan; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus; Antileukotriene; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day; AntiNF-kB; Antiosteoarthritic; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day; Antiproliferant 2 uM; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antirheumatic; Antisyndrome-X; Antitumor; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus 150 ug/kg diet rat 230 ug/kg orl rat 333.6 ug/day; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet; Antitumor (Prostate); Antiulcerogenic; Anxiolytic; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM; Apoptotic; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant; Fungicide; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor; Prostaglandin-Sparer; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM; VEGF-Inhibitor

SERINE Fruit 470 - 1,826 ppm


SEROTONIN Fruit: Hull Husk 47 - 93 ppm

Abortifacient; Analgesic 0.1 mg/rat ith; Antiaggregant; Antialzheimeran?; Anticholinesterase; Anticonvulsant 50 mg/kg scu rat; Antidepressant; Antiendotoxic 32.5 mg/kg ipr mus; Antigastric; Antigastrisecretogogic; Antipredatory; Antireserpine 12.5 mg/kg ipr mus; Antiscoliotic 0.1% diet; Bronchoconstrictor 0.006 mg/kg ivn gpg; Cardiovascular 0.003 mg/kg ivn rat; Coagulant; Euphoriant; Myorelaxant; Myostimulant; Neurotransmitter; Oxytocic; Succinic-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor; Teratogenic; Ulcerogenic 20 mg/kg ipr rat; Vasoactive; Vasoconstrictor

SFA Fruit 1,850 - 7,187 ppm

No activity reported.


Analgesic; Anticancer; Anticonvulsant; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin; Antiradicular; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Bruchifuge; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Ileorelaxant; Mutagenic; Pesticide

SILICA Fruit 238 ppm;

No activity reported.

SILICON Fruit 70 - 350 ppm

Antiarteriosclerotic; Antionychyotic; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

SODIUM Fruit 6 - 44 ppm


STARCH Fruit 7,000 - 17,500 ppm Stem 50,000 ppm;

Absorbent; Antidote (Iodine); Antinesidioblastosic; Emollient; Poultice

STEARIC-ACID Fruit 60 - 233 ppm

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Cosmetic; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000; Hypocholesterolemic; Lubricant; Perfumery; Propecic; Suppository


Antihepatotoxic; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM; Antiviral; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic; Ovulant; Sedative


Additive FEMA 200-2,000; Antifeedant; Bruchiphobe; Cancer-Preventive; Dye; Perfumery; Pesticide

SUCROSE Fruit 119,000 ppm;

Aggregant; Antihiccup 1 tsp; Antiophthalmic; Antioxidant; Atherogenic; Collyrium; Demulcent; Flatugenic; Hypercholesterolemic; Preservative; Sweetener 1 x sucrose; Triglycerigenic; Uricogenic; Vulnerary

SULFUR Fruit 78 - 500 ppm

Acarifuge; Antiacne; Antiarthritic; Antidandruff; Antigrey; Antiosteoarthritic; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Comedogenic; Keratolytic; Laxative; Parasiticide; Pesticide; Scabicide


Acidifier; Additive; Antioxidant Synergist; FLavor FEMA 500-10,000; Irritant; Sequestrant

THIAMIN Fruit 0.45 - 1.7 ppm

Analgesic 1-4 g/day; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day; Antianorectic; Antibackache 1-4 g/day; Antiberiberi; Anticanker; Anticardiospasmic; Anticataract; Anticolitic; Antidecubitic; Antideliriant; Antidementia; Antidyspeptic; Antiencephalopathic; Antifatigue; Antigastritic; Antihangover 50 mg; Antiheartburn; Antiherpetic; AntiLyme; Antimigraine; Antimyocarditic; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day; Antineurasthenic; Antineuritic; Antineuropathic 50 mg; Antipoliomyelitic; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day; Neuroprotective; Pesticide

THREONINE Fruit 340 - 1,321 ppm

Antioxidant?; Antiulcer; Essential; FLavor FEMA 1,000

TOCOPHEROL Fruit 2 - 11 ppm

5-HETE-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Analgesic 100 IU 3 x day; Antiaggregant; Antiaging; Antialzheimeran 2,000 IU; Antianginal 1,067 mg/man/day; Antiarteriosclerotic; Antiarthritic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibronchitic; Anticancer (Breast) IC50=125 ug/ml; Anticariogenic; Anticataract; Antichorea; Antichoreic; Anticonvulsant; Anticoronary 100-200 IU/day; Antidecubitic; Antidementia; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic 600-1,200 mg/day; Antidysmenorrheic; Antiepitheleomic; Antifibrositic; Antiglycosation; Antiherpetic; Antiinfertility; Antiinflammatory; Antiischemic; Antileukemic 100-250 uM; Antileukotriene; Antilithic 600 mg/day; Antilupus; Antimaculitic; Antimastalgic; AntiMD; Antimelanomic; AntiMS; Antimyoclonic; Antineuritic; Antineuropathic; Antinitrosaminic; Antiophthalmic; Antiosteoarthritic; Antioxidant IC36=10 uM IC50=30 ug/ml IC95=650 uM; Antiparkinsonian; AntiPMS 300 IU 2 x day; Antiproliferant IC50=150 ug/ml; Antiradicular; Antiretinopathic?; Antirheumatic; Antisenility; Antisickling; Antispasmodic 300 mg/man/day; Antisterility; Antistroke; Antisunburn; Antisyndrome-X; Antithalassemic; Antithrombotic 600 IU/day; Antithromboxane-B2; Antitoxemic; Antitumor 7 uM ckn; Antitumor (Breast) 100-250 uM IC50=125 ug/ml; Antitumor (Colorectal) 500-10,000 uM; Antitumor (Prostate) 100-250 uM; Antitumor (Stomach); Antiulcerogenic 67 mg/man/3 x/day/orl; Apoptotic 100-250 uM; Calcium-Antagonist; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Cerebroprotective; Circulatory-Stimulant; Circulotonic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic 100-450 IU/man/day; Hypoglycemic 600 IU/man/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant 60-800 IU; Insulin-Sparing 1,000 IU; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor 400 mg/kg; P21-Inducer 500-10,000 uM; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor 10-50 uM IC50=450 uM; Vasodilator

TRYPTOPHAN Fruit 120 - 466 ppm

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal; Antidementia 3 g/day; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl; Antimenopausal 6 g/day; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day; Antiphenylketonuric; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day; Antirheumatic; Antiscoliotic; Carcinogenic; Essential; Hypnotic; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive 3 g/day; Insulinase-Inhibitor; Insulinotonic; Monoamine-Precursor; Prolactinogenic; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man; Tumor-Promoter

TYROSINE Fruit 240 - 932 ppm

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day; Antiphenylketonuric; Antiulcer 256 mg scu 400 mg/kg ipr rat; Cancer-Preventive; Monoamine-Precursor

VALINE Fruit 470 - 1,826 ppm

Antiencephalopathic; Essential; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l; Allelopathic; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml; Anticancer; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic; Antisickling; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Ascaricide; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; Fungicide; Immunosuppressant; Laxative; Pesticide; Ubiquiot

VIT-B-6 Fruit 6 - 22.5 ppm

No activity reported.

WATER Bulb 902,000 ppm; Flower 902,000 ppm; Fruit 738,790 - 746,410 ppm Latex Exudate 114,600 ppm; Pith 883,000 ppm; Shoot 926,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

XANTHOPHYLLS Hull Husk 1 - 7.3 ppm

No activity reported.


Antidiabetic; Diagnostic; Dye

ZINC Fruit 1.5 - 10 ppm

ACE-Inhibitor; Analgesic; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day; Antiangiogenic; Antianorexic; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day; Anticataract 30 mg/day; Anticoeliac; Anticold 50 mg; Anticolitic; Anticoronary 30 mg/day; AntiCrohn's; Antidandruff; Antidementia; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Cadmium); Antidysgeuzic; Antieczemic 150 mg/day; Antiencephalopathic; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day; Antifibrotic 30 mg; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man; Antihangover 15 mg; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV; Antiimpotence; Antiinfective 50 mg/day; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilepric; Antileukonychic; Antilymphomic; Antimaculitic; Antimetastatic; Antineuropathic; Antinyctalopic; Antiobesity 30 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic; Antiplaque; Antiprolactin; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic 50 mg/day; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man 88 mg/rat/day/15 days; Antiviral?; Astringent; Collagenic; Copper-Antagonist; Deodorant; Detoxicant (Alcohol); Ergogenic; Hypotensive 30 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day; Mucogenic; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Spermigenic 60 mg/day; Testosteronigenic; Trichomonicide; Vulnerary

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

The source of the experience

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