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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) -- Arbutus, Strawberry Tree

Identifier

019357

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) -- Arbutus, Strawberry Tree


Chemicals

1-DOTRIACONTANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-TRIACONTANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

15-NONACOSANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARBUTIN Leaf 27,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC51=1.1 mM 438 ; Antibacterial MIC=4,000-8,000 ppm; Antiedemic 50 mg/kg X1875280 ; Antimelanogenic IC50=40 uM X10403123 ; Antiseptic 60-200 mg/man DUKE1992B ; Antistreptococcic MIC=4,000-8,000 ppm CAN ; Antitussive JBH ; Artemicide TOX ; Candidicide PAM ; Diuretic 60-200 mg/man M11 ; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Mycoplasmistat MAB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor IC50=40 uM X10403123 ; Urinary-Antiseptic JBH

ARBUTOFLAVONOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETULINIC-ACID Leaf: JAD Stem Bark: JAD

Anthelmintic X11315752 ; Antibacterial X10630117 ; Anticancer JBH ; Anticarcinomic JBH ; Antiedemic X7701004 ; AntiHIV 14.8 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antileukemic X9353895 ; Antimalarial IC50=19-26 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimelanomic NYT3/28/95 ; Antinociceptive; Antiplasmodial PR13:115 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral 14.8 uM; Apoptotic; Cytotoxic 16.4 uM JNP66:263 50-100 ppm BPCC ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor X11684183 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 200 ug/ml PC48:495 IC50=101 uM YHH30:621

CRYPTOXANTHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Vitamin-A-Activity DUKE1992B

ELLAGIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient 1.2 mg/kg ivn mus AFR27:172 ; ACE-Inhibitor IC50=5 mM/l; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=0.2 uM IC50=0.2 ug/ml (strong activity); Antiaflatoxin X1394115 ; Antianaphylactic AFR27:172 ; Antibacterial 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticancer (Cervix) JNU ; Anticancer (Colon) JNU ; Anticancer (Esophagus) JNU ; Anticancer (Mouth) JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract CPB37:2531 ; Antigingivitic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiGTF ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; AntiHIV IC90=200 ug/ml JNP54:152 ; Antihyperthyroid X6724503 ; Antiinflammatory AFR27:172 ; Antimalarial IC50=0.5 uM RAS ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antioxidant 2/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 >50 x tocopherol PCF:142 IC98=30 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=29 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiplaque 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=0.5 uM RAS ; Antiseptic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antistreptococcic ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiviral EMP5:224 ; Antiyeast IC50=10.5 uM X11678651 ; Apoptotic JNU ; Astringent M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 3 ppm; Candida-SAP-Inhibitor IC50=8.4 uM X11678651 ; Cytotoxic 4.6 ug/ml ACM:359 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Detoxicant PAL:334 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Hepatoprotective IC55=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor EMP5:224 ; Juvabional 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 0.4 g/kg rat CAR17:821 ; Sunscreen 0.5% AllHerb1998 ; Topoisomerase-I-Antagonist JMF2:167 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=3.1 uM CPB38:1225

FAT Seed 34,000 - 368,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GALLIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GLYCOLIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic PED ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986 ; Irritant M11

HYDROQUINONE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC100=2.7 mM 438 ; Allergenic M11 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antihepatomic CAN ; Antilithic DUKE1992B ; Antimalarial DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic AFR27:165 ; Antimelasmic M29 ; Antimenorrhagic DUKE1992B ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antipertussive DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antithyreotropic DUKE1992B ; Antitrypanosomic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Astringent DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic PCF:44,277 ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Convulsant 1 g orl LRN-SEP87 ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Deliriant 1,000 mg/man CAN ; Depigmentor M11 ; Emetic 1 g orl LRN-SEP87 ; FLavor FEMA 5-50 ARC ; Herbicide IC41=50 ug/ml 455 ; Hypertensive JBH ; Irritant MAR ; Mycoplasmistat MAB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tinnitigenic 1,000 mg/man CAN

LEUCODELPHINIDIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory CRC ; Antineoplastic LRN-SEP92

LUPEOL Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiangiogenic 30-50 ug/ml PR4:341 ; AntiEBV JNP65:645 ; Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; Antihyperglycemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin PM60:516 ; Antilithic 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antioxidant FT67:121 ; Antiperoxidant FT67:121 ; Antiprostaglandin X11732756 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiurethrotic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JNP67:344 ; Cytotoxic 50-500 ppm DUKE1992B ; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml JNP59:658 ; Hypotensive JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor IC50=10.4 uM JNP64:1545

LYCOPENE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Bladder) NR56:35 ; Anticancer (Breast) NR56:35 ; Anticancer (Cervix) NR56:35 ; Anticancer (Prostate) NR56:35 ; Antioxidant CRH(FEB):13.1997 ; Antiprostatitic CRH(FEB):13.1997 ; Antiradicular DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antitumor (Bladder) NR56:35 ; Antitumor (Breast) NR56:35 ; Antitumor (Cervix) NR56:35 ; Antitumor (Prostate) NR56:35 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Colorant DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 60 mg/man/day/3 mos NR56:35 ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096

METHYL-ARBUTIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MYRICETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Antiallergenic RWG122 ; Antibacterial MIC=20-500 ug/ml; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antigastric DUKE1992B ; Antigingivitic MIC=20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antigonadotrophic JBH ; Antihistaminic RWG122 ; AntiHIV POP:270 ; Antiinflammatory OMM ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.4 uM P&T78:143 IC50=3.9 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC99=200 ppm PCF ; Antiperiodontic MIC=20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiseptic JNP59:987 ; Antiviral POP:270 ; Apoptotic 60 uM PMID10673981 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=150 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; COMP-Inhibitor JCN70:1040 ; Diuretic OMM ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:170 ; Larvistat IC50=2.6-3.5 mM/kg diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; Mutagenic NIG ; Oxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 36 uM CLE120:213 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=11.9 ug/ml; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

PHYTOFLUENE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Seed 31,000 - 235,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TANNIN Bark 450,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 160,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

UNEDIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

UNEDOSIDE Leaf 2,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

URSOLIC-ACID Leaf: DUKE1992A

Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

VIOLAXANTHIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Colorant JBH ; Ubiquiot JBH

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree)

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

455: Hanke, F. J., Natural Products as a Resource for Biologically Active Compounds, Thesis, U. Cal (Santa Cruz), 1986, 252 pp

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:359: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 359.

AFR27:165: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:172: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AllHerb1998: AllHerb1998

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

BPCC: Biosyn. Prod. Cancer Chemotherapy (Petit et al)

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAR17:821: Ahn, D., Putt, D., Kresty, L., Stoner, G. D., Fromm, D., Hollenberg, P. F. 1996. The Effects of Dietary Ellagic Acid on Rat Hepatic and Esophageal Mucosal Cytochromes P450 and Phase II Enzymes. Carcinogenesis, 17(4): 821-828.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CPB37:2531: Shimizu, M., Horie, S., Terashima, S., Ueno, H., et al. 1989. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Natural Products.II. Active Components of a Paraguayan Crude Drug "Para-parai mi," Phyllanthus niruri. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(9): 2531-2532, 1989.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CRH(FEB):13.1997: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:224: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 224.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:121: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCN70:1040: Dullo, A. G., et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, 70: 1040-1045.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:167: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 167.1999.

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:152: Tan, G.T., Pezzuto, J.M., Kinghorn,* A.D., Hughes, S.H. Evaluation Of Natural Products As Inhibitors Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Reverse Transcriptase. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 143-154, 1991.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:658: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:645: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LRN-SEP87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-87.

LRN-SEP92: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NR56:35: Jim Duke's personal files

NYT3/28/95: New York Times, 3/28/95.

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

P&T78:143: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:334: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC48:495: Dunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:142: Osawa, T. Phenolic Antioxidants in Dietary Plants as Antimutagens.Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.11 p.142.

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44,277: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PMID10673981: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4:341: Jim Duke's personal files

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

X10403123: Jim Duke's personal files

X10630117: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085357: Jim Duke's personal files

X11315752: Jim Duke's personal files

X11678651: Jim Duke's personal files

X11684183: Jim Duke's personal files

X11732756: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802734: Jim Duke's personal files

X12898427: Jim Duke's personal files

X13678231: Jim Duke's personal files

X1394115: Jim Duke's personal files

X15070161: Jim Duke's personal files

X15884816: Jim Duke's personal files

X1875280: Jim Duke's personal files

X2142592: Jim Duke's personal files

X6724503: Jim Duke's personal files

X7701004: Jim Duke's personal files

X9145218: Jim Duke's personal files

X9353895: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Sat Oct 31 18:44:47 EDT 2015