Contamination of French drinking water
Type of Spiritual Experience
Carbamazepine (CBZ) (Tegretol, Equetro) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. Off-label uses, include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, phantom limb syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Studies on the use of carbamazepine in pregnant women have demonstrated exposure of the fetus to the drug and its metabolites. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine has been shown to be teratogenic and is associated with the development of spina bifida, neurodevelopmental problems, craniofacial defects, cardiovascular malformations, hypospadias, and developmental delays.
A description of the experience
Environ Pollut. 2011 Oct;159(10):2929-34. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.04.033. Epub 2011 May 12. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption. Vulliet E1, Cren-Olivé C. 1Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Département Service Central d'Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize, France. email@example.com
As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking.
Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters.
Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect.
The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen.
Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples.
Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Heart failure and coronary heart disease
Miscarriages and still births
Pain killers and NSAIDS