Clozaril and Clozapine
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Clozapine - Clozapine sold as Clozaril , Azaleptin, Leponex, Fazaclo, Froidir; Denzapine, Zaponex; Klozapol, and Clopine is an atypical antipsychotic. Please note that not all the trade names have been investigated. It is mainly used for schizophrenia.
Initially it was voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer after it was shown to cause a dangerous decrease in the number of white blood cells, that led to death in some patients.
Most common Clozapine side effects [eHealthme]
- Agranulocytosis - (3,618 reports)
- Death - (2,375 reports)
- Leukopenia - (1,094 reports)
- Fever - (1,059 reports)
- White blood cell count decreased - (825 reports)
- White blood cell count increased - (817 reports)
- Pneumonia - (797 reports)
- Arrhythmias - (781 reports)
- Psychotic disorder - (657 reports)
- Neutrophil count decreased - (642 reports)
In 1989, after studies demonstrated that it was more effective than any other antipsychotic for treating schizophrenia, it was approved by the FDA only for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The FDA requires clozapine to carry other black box warnings for seizures, myocarditis, "other adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects", and for "increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis.".
Clozapine is classified as an atypical antipsychotic drug because its profile of binding to serotonergic as well as dopamine receptors; it has a low affinity for receptors D1, D2, D3 and D5 receptors, but high affinity for the D4 receptor. And it is a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor. Its effects on various dopamine mediated behaviors also differ from those exhibited by more typical antipsychotics. It does not induce catalepsy for example. It is also a strong antagonist at different subtypes of adrenergic, cholinergic and histaminergic receptors, the last two being predominantly responsible for its side effect profile.
This probably makes the drug fairly unpredictable in effects, given the complexity of all the receptors through which it acts, but it is very clear that it has very strong anticholinergic effects.