Anti-bacterial action of Italian cheeses
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
J Dairy Sci. 2005 Jul;88(7):2348-60. Antibacterial activities of peptides from the water-soluble extracts of Italian cheese varieties. Rizzello CG1, Losito I, Gobbetti M, Carbonara T, De Bari MD, Zambonin PG. Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia Applicata, Università degli Studi di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy.
Water-soluble extracts of 9 Italian cheese varieties that differed mainly for type of cheese milk, starter, technology, and time of ripening were fractionated by reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of each fraction was first assayed toward Lactobacillus sakei A15 by well-diffusion assay.
Active fractions were further analyzed by HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, and peptide sequences were identified by comparison with a proteomic database.
- Parmigiano Reggiano, Fossa, and Gorgonzola water-soluble extracts did not show antibacterial peptides.
- Fractions of Pecorino Romano, Canestrato Pugliese, Crescenza, and Caprino del Piemonte contained a mixture of peptides with a high degree of homology.
- Pasta filata cheeses (Caciocavallo and Mozzarella) also had antibacterial peptides.
Peptides showed high levels of homology with N-terminal, C-terminal, or whole fragments of well known antimicrobial or multifunctional peptides reported in the literature: alphaS1-casokinin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-casein (CN) f22-30 of Pecorino Romano and cow alphaS1-CN f24-33 of Canestrato Pugliese); isracidin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-CN f10-21 of Pecorino Romano); kappacin and casoplatelin (e.g., cow kappa-CN f106-115 of Canestrato Pugliese and Crescenza); and beta-casomorphin-11 (e.g., goat beta-CN f60-68 of Caprino del Piemonte).
As shown by the broth microdilution technique, most of the water-soluble fractions had a large spectrum of inhibition (minimal inhibitory concentration of 20 to 200 microg/mL) toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic bacteria of clinical interest.
Cheeses manufactured from different types of cheese milk (cow, sheep, and goat) have the potential to generate similar peptides with antimicrobial activity.