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Observations placeholder

Acute knee injury in athletes



Type of Spiritual Experience


Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. It is part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, which compose the exoskeletons of crustaceans and other arthropods, as well as the cell walls of fungi and many higher organisms.

There is some evidence that foods containing glucosamine help with bone injuries. There are such things as glucosamine dietary supplements – these are produced commercially by the hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons or, less commonly by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat, but there is little point in buying dietary supplements when you can find it in foods. There is the added danger with supplements that you will overdose. Pubmed has a number of papers of people who suffered from liver injury from supplements.  The main [edible] food sources are:

 - Certain fungi

 - Bone marrow

Sprouted seeds may also be an option but as yet I could find no papers on this.

A description of the experience


Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):113-24. Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Ostojic SM1, Arsic M, Prodanovic S, Vukovic J, Zlatanovic M. Institute of Sports Medicine, Sports Academy, Belgrade, Serbia. sergej@panet.co.yu

The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of glucosamine administration on the functional ability and the degree of pain intensity in competitive male athletes after acute knee injury.

This study was a randomized, double-blind parallel trial of glucosamine (1500 mg per day) or a placebo for 28 days, utilising 106 patients with an acute knee injury. Pain and functional ability were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after starting treatment. Pain intensity at rest and while walking was assessed using a visual analog scale. Passive knee flexibility (flexion and extension) of the injured limb was measured using a modified goniometer, and the degree of knee swelling was measured and compared with the noninjured limb.

No significant difference was found between the glucosamine, and placebo group in mean pain intensity scores for resting and walking, and degree of knee swelling at the 7-day, 14-day, 21-day, and 28-day assessment.

There was no significant difference between passive knee flexibility at the 7-day, 14-day, and 21-day assessment.

After 28 days of treatment the patients from the glucosamine group demonstrated significant improvement in knee flexion and extension as compared with the placebo group.

PMID: 17578751

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Hurt [physical]


Bone marrow