Common steps and sub-activities
The objective of this technique is to put pressure on the diaphragm. This technique is used in a number of yoga techniques. It is also one of the five main keys of general Chi Kung [Qigong] practise. In Qigong for example it is called ‘Taoist breathing’. Numerous systems use the approach but have different names and occasionally slightly different methods of achieving the effects.
I have provided three approaches – very different, but all achieve the same thing.
Some of the information I obtained for a description of this technique can be found in the two excellent books by Dr Jang Jwing-Ming, one of which is The Root of Chinese Chi Kung and Muscle/Tendon Changing & Marrow/Brain washing Chi Kung.
There are also explanations in ‘Yoga and Kriya’ by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, and Hatha Yoga Pradipika - Swami Muktibodhananda.