Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season
Type of Spiritual Experience
Please read the red clover entry to get a full perspective on the impact of this finding. The healing will take place if you are low on estrogen
A description of the experience
PLoS One. 2015 May 21;10(5):e0127187. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127187. eCollection 2015.
Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.
Adler SA1, Purup S2, Hansen-Møller J2, Thuen E3, Steinshamn H4.
- 1Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, 6630, Tingvoll, Norway; Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432, Ås, Norway.
- 2Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Foulum, 8830, Tjele, Denmark.
- 3Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432, Ås, Norway.
- 4Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, 6630, Tingvoll, Norway.
Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors.
The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk.
The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management.
Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment.
Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding.
The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol.
Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms.
Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production.
Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods.
There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage.
This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens. However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.