Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Gall Bladder disease
Type of Spiritual Experience
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Symptoms include right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and occasionally fever. Often gallbladder attacks (biliary colic) precede acute cholecystitis. The pain lasts longer in cholecystitis than in a typical gallbladder attack.
A description of the experience
Front Microbiol. 2017 Apr 20;8:685. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00685. eCollection 2017.
Comprehensive Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection Associated with Acute Cholecystitis Using Metagenomic Approach.
Kujiraoka M1,2, Kuroda M2, Asai K1, Sekizuka T2, Kato K2, Watanabe M1, Matsukiyo H1, Saito T1, Ishii T1, Katada N1, Saida Y1, Kusachi S1.
Acute cholecystitis (AC), which is strongly associated with retrograde bacterial infection, is an inflammatory disease that can be fatal if inappropriately treated. Currently, bacterial culture testing, which is basically recommended to detect the etiological agent, is a time-consuming (4-6 days), non-comprehensive approach. To rapidly detect a potential pathogen and predict its antimicrobial susceptibility, we undertook a metagenomic approach to characterize the bacterial infection associated with AC. Six patients (P1-P6) who underwent cholecystectomy for AC were enrolled in this study. Metagenome analysis demonstrated possible single or multiple bacterial infections in four patients (P1, P2, P3, and P4) with 24-h experimental procedures; in addition, the CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) gene was identified in two bile samples (P1 and P4). Further whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli isolates suggested that CTX-M-27-producing ST131 and CTX-M-14-producing novel-ST were identified in P1 and P4, respectively. Metagenome analysis of feces and saliva also suggested some imbalance in the microbiota for more comprehensive assessment of patients with AC. In conclusion, metagenome analysis was useful for rapid bacterial diagnostics, including assessing potential antimicrobial susceptibility, in patients with AC.
acute cholecystitis; bacteriological analysis; gut microbiota; metagenome analysis; next-generation sequencing