In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity
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Prosthodont. 2015 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/jopr.12411. [Epub ahead of print]
In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity.
Shirley KP1, Windsor LJ2, Eckert GJ3, Gregory RL2.
- 1Department of Prosthodontics, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN.
- 2Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN.
- 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.
To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons.
The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations.
P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their effectiveness as antifungals and suggests their promising potential use as solutions for C. albicans biofilm-related infections.
© 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Candidiasis; antifungal; biofilm; crystal violet; denture stomatitis; hexadecane