Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;129:509-36. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62630-1.00029-9.
Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions.
- 1Department of Neurology, Loyola University of Chicago; Chicago Council for Science and Technology, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Auditory processing can be disrupted by brainstem lesions. It is estimated that approximately 57% of brainstem lesions are associated with auditory disorders. However diseases of the brainstem usually involve many structures, producing a plethora of other neurologic deficits, often relegating "auditory symptoms in the background."
- Lesions below or within the cochlear nuclei result in ipsilateral auditory-processing abnormalities detected in routine testing; disorders rostral to the cochlear nuclei may result in bilateral abnormalities or may be silent.
- Lesions in the superior olivary complex and trapezoid body show a mixture of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral abnormalities, whereas
- lesions of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body do not affect peripheral auditory processing and result in predominantly subtle contralateral abnormalities that may be missed by routine auditory testing. In these cases psychophysical methods developed for the evaluation of central auditory function should be employed (e.g., dichotic listening, interaural time perception, sound localization).
The extensive connections of the auditory brainstem nuclei not only are responsible for binaural interaction but also assure redundancy in the system. This redundancy may explain why small brainstem lesions are sometimes clinically silent.
Any disorder of the brainstem (e.g., neoplasms, vascular disorders, infections, trauma, demyelinating disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, malformations) that involves the auditory pathways and/or centers may produce hearing abnormalities.
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
auditory hallucinations; auditory pathways; brainstem auditory system; brainstem strokes; cerebellopontine angle tumors; deafness; hearing loss; hyperacusis; neurofibromatosis type 2; psychoacoustic testing; sound localization