Observations placeholder

Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Carvacrol, Myrtle, Lavender and Salvia



Type of Spiritual Experience


Salvia sclarea is clary sage

A description of the experience

J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2013 Dec 18;8(1):60-8. eCollection 2014.

Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

Kayedi MH1, Haghdoost AA2, Salehnia A3, Khamisabadi K4.


  • 1Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center and Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
  • 2Research Center for Modeling in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
  • 3Khorraman Herbal Medicines Pharmaceutical Company, Khorramabad, Iran.
  • 4National Health Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.


Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls.


In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.

CONCLUSION: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils.

KEYWORDS:  Anopheles stephensi; Malaria; essential oil; plants; repellents

PMID:  25629066

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Essential oils