Category: Medicines - plant based
Introduction and description
The lavenders (Lavandula) are a genus of 39 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
An Old World genus, it is distributed from Macaronesia (Cape Verde and Canary Islands and Madeira) across Africa, the Mediterranean, South-West Asia, Arabia, Western Iran and South-East India.
It is thought the genus originated in Asia but it is most diversified in its western distribution.
The genus includes annuals, herbaceous plants, subshrubs, and small shrubs.
The leaves are long and narrow in most species but the flowers, which are held on spikes rising above the foliage, can be blue, violet or lilac.
Lavender is for use externally and only externally. Although it appears to have anti-cancer, anti-fungal and all sorts of properties from the research, this research was done on cells outside the body and lavender contains enough potentially poisonous ingredients to make its use internally extremely unwise.
It has the potential to be a very very important companion plant. Furthermore, in normal doses - that is as a bunch of flowers or in a pomander, it promotes relaxation by its scent. The scent has a slightly soporific effect and thus - again in moderate doses - is calming and tranquillising.
Dr Duke's analysis
The analysis of lavender can be found on Dr Duke's Plant Database. The full analysis can be found by using the search facilities for the site. The following excludes all the chemicals for which there is currently no known activity. The list below simply shows you the chemicals for which an activity or activities is known. The activities are derived from research papers so may appear to conflict on occasions.
The 'negative' properties are shown in red - negative in the sense that they have the potential to harm us if we ingest it. You can see that the plant has strong anti-fungal, insecticidal, herbicidal, fungicidal etc properties all supporting its role as a companion plant to the plants we want to grow as food. It also has a potential use, if used moderately as a insect repellant.
The positive properties are shown in blue - positive in the sense that if we breath in the scent in very moderate amounts , it will help in calming us and promoting relaxation.
Only some example activities are highlighted to illustrate the plant's potential
Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lavandula angustifolia MILLER (Lamiaceae) -- English Lavender
1,8-CINEOLE Flower: (-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic; Anesthetic; Anthelmintic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic; Anticariogenic; Anticatarrh; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue; Antihalitosic; Antiinflammatory; Antilaryngitic; Antinociceptive; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antirheumatic; Antirhinitic; Antiseptic; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm; Antitussive; Antiulcer; Candidicide; Carcinogenic; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml; Dentifrice; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 1-200; Fungicide; Gastroprotective; Gram(+)icide; Gram(-)icide; Hepatotonic; Herbicide IC50=78 uM; Hypotensive; Inflammatory inj; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide; Neurotoxic; P450-Inducer; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin; Perfume; Pesticide; Rubefacient; Secretogogue; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Surfactant; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer; Transdermal; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml
ALPHA-PINENE Plant: Allelochemic; Allergenic; Antiacne; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Coleoptophile; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-150; Herbicide IC50=30 uM; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Irritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer; Transdermal
BETA-PHELLANDRENE Flower: Expectorant; Fungicide; Perfumery
BETA-PINENE Plant: Allergenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 15-600; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic; Transdermal
BETA-SANTALENE Flower: Antiinflammatory; Perfumery
BORNEOL Plant: (-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Allelochemic; Analgesic; Antiacetylcholine; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml; Antibronchitic; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml; Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory; Antiotitic; Antipyretic; Antisalmonella; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml; Antiyeast; Candidicide; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; CNS-Toxic; FLavor FEMA<1; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective; Herbicide IC50=470 mM IC50=470 uM; Inhalant; Insect-Repellent; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Tranquilizer
BORNYL-ACETATE Plant 2,250 - 6,750 ppm (-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml; Antiviral; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 70-80; Insectifuge; Myorelaxant; Pesticide; Sedative
BUTYRIC-ACID Flower: Anticancer; Antitumor; Apoptotic; Bruchifuge; Nematistat 880 ug/ml; Pesticide
CAMPHENE Plant: Allelopathic; Antilithic?; Antioxidant; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-175; Hypocholesterolemic?; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Spasmogenic
CAMPHOR Flower: Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml; Antidysenteric; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet; Antifibrositic; Antineuralgic; Antipruritic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml; Cancer-Preventive; Carminative; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Cosmetic; Counterirritant; Decongestant; Deliriant; Ecbolic; Emetic; Epileptigenic; Expectorant; Fungicide ED50=2.7 mM; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM; Insect-Repellent; Insectifuge; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Occuloirritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM; Pesticide; Respirainhibitor; Respirastimulant; Rubefacient; Stimulant; Transdermal; Verrucolytic; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml
CAPROIC-ACID Flower: Irritant
CARYOPHYLLENE Flower: Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiacne; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml; Antidermatitic; Antiedemic; Antifeedant 500 ppm; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM; Antileishmanic; Antionychyotic; Antiproliferant; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 20-200; Fungicide; Gastroprotective; Insectifuge; Irritant; Larvicide; Mosquitocide; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Termitifuge
CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Flower: Antiedemic; Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory; Antitumor; Calcium-Antagonist ED50=32 uM gpg; Fungicide; Insecticide; Pesticide
CITRONELLOL Flower: Allergenic; Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 1-50; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=160 uM; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml
COUMARIN Plant 1,000 - 1,500 ppm Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 11% inhibition); Allelochemic IC100=2 mM; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiaggregant; Antiandrogenic; Antibrucellosic; Anticancer (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/day; Anticancer (Prostate); Antidiuretic; Antiedemic; Antiesherichic; Antiinflammatory; Antilymphedemic; Antimelanomic 50 mg/day; Antimetastatic 50 mg/man/day; Antimitotic; Antimononuccleotic; Antimutagenic; Antimycoplasmotic; Antipsittacotic; Antipsoriac; Antitoxoplasmotic; Antitumor 50 mg/day; Antitumor (GI); Antitumor (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/day; Antitumor (Prostate); Bacteristat; Bruchiphobe; Cancer-Preventive 5-25 ug/ml; Carcinogenic 200 mg/kg orl mus; Cardiodepressant; Cardiotonic; Chemopreventive; DME-Inhibitor IC50=57.5 uM; Emetic; Estrogenic; Fungicide; Hemorrhagic; Hepatotoxic 0.8-1.71 mM/kg orl rat 100 mg/kg dog 2,500 ppm diet; Hypnotic; Hypoglycemic 250-1,000 mg/kg orl; Immunostimulant; Juvabional; Larvistat; Lymphocytogenic 100 mg/day; Lymphokinetic; Narcotic; Ovicide; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Piscicide; Respirodepressant; Rodenticide; Sedative
CUMINALDEHYDE Flower: Antibacterial; FLavor FEMA <1; Fungicide; Irritant; Larvicide; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM; Ulcerogenic
DELTA-3-CARENE Flower: Allergenic?; Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory ipr; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA; Insectifuge; Irritant; Pesticide
DELTA-CADINENE Flower: Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml; Anticariogenic; Antistreptococcic; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; P450-Inducer; Pesticide; Testosterone-Inducer
DIHYDROCOUMARIN Flower: Cancer-Preventive; FLavor FEMA 5-80
FARNESENE Flower: Pesticide; Pheromone
GERANIAL Flower: Antiaflatoxin; Antibacterial; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Skin); Antiviral; Antiyeast; Chemopreventive; Estrogenic; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic; Pesticide; Spasmolytic
GERANIOL Flower: Allergenic; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml MIC=400 ug/ml MIC=64 ug/ml; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml 7 x phenol MIC=64 ug/ml; Antispasmodic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM; Ascaricide; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; CNS-Stimulant; Embryotoxic; Emetic 3 x ipecac; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 1-10; Fungicide IC93=2 mM; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml MLC=1,000 ug/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml
GERANYL-BUTYRATE Flower: FLavor FEMA 1-10; Perfumery; Sedative
GERANYL-CAPROATE Flower: FLavor FEMA 1-3; Perfumery
HERNIARIN Plant 20 - 250 ppm Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow (weak activity); Allergenic; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 100 ppm; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Candidicide; Cholagogue; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective; Pesticide; Photoactive
ISOBUTYRIC-ACID Flower: Irritant; Transdermal
ISOVALERALDEHYDE Flower: FLavor FEMA 0.5-5
LIMONENE Flower: Acaricide LC100=8 uM; AChE-Inhibitor; Allelochemic; Allergenic 1/20th carene; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM; Antiadenomic; Antialzheimeran?; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Antiesophagitic; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory; Antilithic; Antilymphomic; Antimetastatic (Stomach); Antimutagenic; Antiobesity; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Bronchoprotectant; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Chemopreventive; Cholesterolytic; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant; Expectorant; FLavor; Fungiphilic; Fungistat; GST-Inducer; Herbicide IC50=45 uM; Histaminic; Immunomodulator; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor; Irritant; Lipolytic; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml; NO-Genic; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet); Ozone-Scavenger; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic; Pesticide; Photosensitizer; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg; Transdermal
LINALYL-ACETATE Flower 240 - 7,200 ppm Anesthetic 0.01-1 ug/ml; Antioxidant 400 ppm; Antispasmodic ED50=0.21 mg/ml; FLavor FEMA 2-15; Motor-Depressant; Perfumery; Sedative
LINALYL-CAPROATE Flower: FLavor FEMA 3-15; Perfumery
LUTEOLIN Plant: Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml; Anticarcinogenic; Anticarcinomic; Anticataract EC=3 ppm; Anticomplementary; Antidermatic; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic; Antimelanomic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio; Antiproliferant; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Kidney); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM; Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM; Antitussive; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge; Apoptotic 12-50 uM; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Choleretic; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM; Diuretic; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM; Hypocholesterolemic; ICAM-1-Inhibitor; IKK-Inhibitor; iNOS-Inhibitor; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAPK-Inhibitor; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM; Myorelaxant; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Proliferant; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml
MYRCENE Flower: ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antibacterial; Anticonvulsant; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus 20-40 mg/kg scu mus; Antioxidant; Antispasmodic; Chemopreventive; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9; Fungicide; Hypothermic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide
NERAL Flower: Antibacterial; Antispasmodic; Pesticide; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g
OCIMENE Flower: Insecticide; Perfumery
ROSMARINIC-ACID Plant 12,000 ppm; ABeta-Inhibitor; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiaggregant; Antiallergic; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM; Antibacterial; Anticoagulant; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antidepressant; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=20 ug/ml; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic; Antioxidant 10 uM EC50=2.7 ug/ml; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM; Antiplaque; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l; Antipulmonotic; Antiradicular; Antishock; Antithyreotropic; Antithyroid; Antiuremic; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic; Apoptotic; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Neuroprotective; Pesticide; Radioprotective
SABINENE Flower: Antibacterial; Antihelicobacter; Antiseptic; Antiulcer; Perfumery
TANNIN Plant 120,000 ppm; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticariogenic; Antidiarrheic; Antidysenteric; Antihepatotoxic; AntiHIV; Antihypertensive; Antilipolytic; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin IC50=1.44 ug/ml; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin 500 mg/kg/day orl mus; Antirenitic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Chelator; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor; Hepatoprotective; Immunosuppressant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Psychotropic; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
UMBELLIFERONE Plant: Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=4.8 ug/ml cow; Allelochemic IC94=2 mM; Antibacterial; Antiedemic; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antimitotic 5-25 ug/ml; Antimutagenic; Antiprostaglandin; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Choleretic; Fungicide; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Perfumery; Pesticide; Photoactive; Sunscreen; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
URSOLIC-ACID Leaf 7,000 ppm; Analgesic; Antialzheimeran; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticancer (Colon); Anticarcinomic; Anticariogenic; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg; Antidiabetic; AntiEBV; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr; Antihistaminic; AntiHIV 6.7 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml IC50=6.5 ug/ml IC85=18 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM; Antiobesity?; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM; Antitrypanosomic; Antitumor; Antitumor (brain); Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet IC50=15-20 uM; Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Stomach); Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor; Beta-Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Cardioprotective; Cardiotonic; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl; CNS-Depressant; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 50 ppm 7.2 uM ED50=3.75 ug/ml; Diuretic; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Leucocytogenic; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Piscicide; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml; Protisticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat; TOPO-2-Inhibitor; Trypanocide; Vasopressor
VALERIC-ACID Flower: Antihysteric; Antiinsomniac 1.2-2.4; Antispasmodic; FLavor FEMA 1-8; Hypotensive; Myorelaxant; Perfumery; Sedative; Tranquilizer
The Problem of Essential oils
There are examples of very negative experiences being obtained from overdosing on the essential oil of lavender, one of which is the death of a child, as such it must be emphasised here that the key is to use the plant. Essential oils are highly concentrated and thus have the potential to deliver an overdose.
Generally, only the buds contain the essential oil of lavender, from which the scent and flavor of lavender are best derived. However, harvesting methods can mean that stalk and leaves may also enter the process, which means there may be a high concentration of coumarin. Once extracted, the oil can be placed in capsules and sold for ingestion, or bottled.
Overdosing on lavendar oil can give you a near death or actual death experience.
Lavendar oil is not genotoxic. Genotoxicity describes a deleterious action on a cell's genetic material affecting its integrity. Genotoxic substances interact with DNA rendering them potentially mutagenic or cancerogenic.
Genotoxicity of lavender oil, linalyl acetate, and linalool on human lymphocytes in vitro - Di Sotto A, Mazzanti G, Carbone F, Hrelia P, Maffei F; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
The potential genotoxicity of lavender essential oil and its major components, linalool, and linalyl acetate, was evaluated in vitro by the micronucleus test on peripheral human lymphocytes. In the range of non-toxic concentrations (0.5-100 ?g/ml), linalyl acetate increased the frequency of micronuclei significantly and in concentration-dependent manner; lavender oil did so only at the highest concentration tested, whereas linalool was devoid of genotoxicity. None of the tested substances led to an increase in nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds frequency. These findings suggest that the mutagenic activity of lavender oil can be related to the presence of linalyl acetate, which seems to have a profile of an aneugenic agent
But Lavendar oil can be cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells - Prashar A, Locke IC, Evans CS; School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil, chiefly composed of linalyl acetate (51%) and linalool (35%), is considered to be one of the mildest of known plant essential oils and has a history in wound healing.
Concerns are building about the potential for irritant or allergenic skin reactions with the use of lavender oil. This study has demonstrated that lavender oil is cytotoxic to human skin cells in vitro (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v) in all cell types tested (HMEC-1, HNDF and 153BR). The major components of the oil, linalyl acetate and linalool, were also assayed under similar conditions for their cytotoxicity. The activity of linalool reflected that of the whole oil, indicating that linalool may be the active component of lavender oil.
Linalyl acetate cytotoxicity was higher than that of the oil itself, suggesting suppression of its activity by an unknown factor in the oil. Membrane damage is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.
Putting lavendar flowers on your pillow, having bunches of lavendar in the house – all are likely to contribute to relaxation.
How it works
In very small amounts there appears to be some justification that lavendar flowers help in relaxation. On the whole the claims made for lavender are nowhere near as exaggerated as they are for some other herbs. There is a general but muted belief in the anti-anxiety effects, which seems to be borne out scientifically ………….
Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandulaangustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels; Huang L et al ; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandulaangustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans,. …………. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, …………. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La ………..are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any receptors
I found no one who related any form of negative spiritual experience with lavendar flowers and many were happy to give it credit for producing forms of relaxation, which is a step on the way to spiritual experience, as such I am happy to think of lavendar as a contributor, but not a direct route.
If you get any form of negative spiritual experience from lavendar, it is likely to have been induced by poisoning caused by coumarin or linalyl acetate [see above]. These are only likely if you ingest the plant or use essential oils incorrectly.
We have grouped the observations for a number of different types of lavender under this one heading for convenience and comparison purposes. In each case however, the specific variety is shown.
- A systematic review of the effect of inhaled essential oils on sleep 016858
- Dr Duke's list Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lavandula latifolia MEDIK. (Lamiaceae) -- Aspic, Broad-Leaved Lavender, Spike Lavender 019011
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lavandula angustifolia MILLER (Lamiaceae) -- English Lavender 019012
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lavandula x intermedia EMERIC ex LOIS (Lamiaceae) -- Dutch Lavender, Lavandin 019010
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antibrucellosic activity 018358
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiburn activity 018359
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (colon) activity 018455
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (kidney) activity 018460
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (pancreas) activity 018464
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (prostate) activity 018465
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with AntiEBV activity of high chemical potency 018294
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiklebsiellic activity 018432
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antipseudomonic Activity 020192
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antisalmonella activity 018398
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antistaphylococcic Activity 018276
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antitumor (brain) activity 018451
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Candidicide Activity 021073
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Candidicide activity 018389
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Trichomonicide activity 018065
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Trypanocide Activity of high chemical potency 018290
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with [Natural] Nematicide activity 018292
- Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Carvacrol, Myrtle, Lavender and Salvia 016772
- Heartburn, ulcers and plants 006253
- Herb Robert, Lavender, Cloves and ear infections 010611
- Lavender fragrance essential oil and the quality of sleep in postpartum women 016857
- Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization 016856
- Nurses experience of aromatherapy use with dementia patients experiencing disturbed sleep patterns. An action research project 016859
- Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review 016774
- Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia 016855
- Plants used to treat skin diseases 027515
- Randomized trial of aromatherapy: Successful treatment for alopecia areata 021310
- Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers 016861
- The effect of lavender oil on stress, bispectral index values, and needle insertion pain in volunteers 016860
- Treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil 016771