Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Viburnum prunifolium L. (Caprifoliaceae) -- Black Haw



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Viburnum prunifolium L. (Caprifoliaceae) -- Black Haw



No activity reported.


Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC43=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory IC71=1,000 ppm orl FT63(1):3 ; Antinociceptive; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Cytotoxic 50-400 DUKE1992B ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Insectifuge X10701181


ACE-Inhibitor IC60-90=333 ug/ml LAB54 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC25=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antibradykinic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic >3/4 indomethacin FT67:257 ; AntiHIV IC50=119 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC97=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory >3/4 indomethacin; Antileukemic IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC10.6=62.5 ug/ml; Antiperoxidant IC50=38 uM PM57:A110 ; Antiulcer PMP24:102 ; Antiviral IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor 5-10 x papaverine AFR27:180 IC50=22 uM BCP35:257 ; Fungicide PMP24:105 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor JBH


Allelochemic IC51=1.1 mM 438 ; Antibacterial MIC=4,000-8,000 ppm; Antiedemic 50 mg/kg X1875280 ; Antimelanogenic IC50=40 uM X10403123 ; Antiseptic 60-200 mg/man DUKE1992B ; Antistreptococcic MIC=4,000-8,000 ppm CAN ; Antitussive JBH ; Artemicide TOX ; Candidicide PAM ; Diuretic 60-200 mg/man M11 ; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Mycoplasmistat MAB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor IC50=40 uM X10403123 ; Urinary-Antiseptic JBH


Analgesic X15964027 ; Antiedemic IC27=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antiinflammatory X8987908 ; Antinociceptive; Antiulcer X14643690 ; Gastroprotective X15368675 ; Hepatoprotective X15763370 ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181


No activity reported.


Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210


Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR


Anticoagulant DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor AYL

DEXTRIN Bark 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Bark 3,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.1-5 uM; Analgesic PMP24:107 ; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic? PMP24:107 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticapillary-Fragility WIC ; Antidysenteric HG24:37 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiinflammatory; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antipyretic FT67:483 ; Antiseptic JE39:205 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiodepressant DUKE1992B ; Choleretic FT5:1986 ; Cosmetic FT67:483 ; Cytotoxic MAB ; Dermatitigenic WIC ; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective 6 mg/kg mus X9503477 ; Hypertensive CCO ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant WOI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen IC100=50 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=20 mg/l FT64:134 ; UV-Screen WIC ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC52=10 uM


Acaricide X10826162 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisyncopic DUKE1992B ; Astringent M11 ; Corrosive ARC ; Counterirritant M11 ; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500 ARC ; Fungistat JBH ; Fungitoxic JBH ; Irritant M&R670 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Preservative ARC ; Toxic JBH


No activity reported.


Antioxidant PCF:64 ; Antiseptic JNP46(5) ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


No activity reported.


5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503


Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29


Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG


Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161


5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503


Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773


5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PENTOSANS Bark 160,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Bark 24,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Root Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SACCHAROSE Bark 3,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Analgesic 411 ; Antiaggregant 411 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiinflammatory PM56(6):660 ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative WOI ; Stomachic M11 ; Teratogenic CRC ; Tonic DUKE1992B ; Uterorelaxant WOI


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM PR7:252 ; Analgesic; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antidermatotic DUKE1992B ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antiichthyosic M29 ; Antiinflammatory PHZ46:156 ; Antineuralgic MAD ; Antioncychomycotic M29 ; Antioxidant KCH ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic PJB1(2):285 ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic ALH ; Antitumor PCF:49 ; Antitympanitic M11 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Comedolytic M29 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX2000 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml FFJ11:257 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:158 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Keratolytic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Thermogenic 130 ppm SCI237:1601 ; Tineacide M29 ; Ulcerogenic DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411


Anticholinergic KCH ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH


No activity reported.

STARCH Bark 55,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

TANNIN Root Bark 20,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161


Antihysteric MAR ; Antiinsomniac 1.2-2.4 DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:86 ; FLavor FEMA 1-8 ARC ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant JE26:86 ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative DUKE1992B ; Tranquilizer DUKE1992B


No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Black haw



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:211: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

BCI28:735: Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.

BCP35:257: Jim Duke's personal files

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

COX2000: Newmark, T. M. and Schulick, P. 2000. Herbal Cox-2 Inhibition - Nature's Challenge to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease. Hohm Press, Prescott AZ.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:158: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 158.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FFJ11:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:257: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:483: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG24:37: HerbalGram No. 24, page 37.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE39:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP46(5): J. Nat. Prod. 46(5).

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:455: Aquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

LAB54: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF351: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R670: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:64: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 64.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):285: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):660: Planta Medica, 56(6): 660, 1990.

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:102: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:105: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:107: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PR7:252: Toyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SCI237:1601: Jim Duke's personal files

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

X10403123: Jim Duke's personal files

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826162: Jim Duke's personal files

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085357: Jim Duke's personal files

X11307877: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

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X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802734: Jim Duke's personal files

X12898427: Jim Duke's personal files

X13678231: Jim Duke's personal files

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X15070161: Jim Duke's personal files

X15368675: Jim Duke's personal files

X15763370: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X15964027: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X1875280: Jim Duke's personal files

X8987908: Jim Duke's personal files

X9503477: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace