Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) -- Lavender Cotton



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) -- Lavender Cotton



No activity reported.


ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB


Allelochemic IC86=1 mM 438 ; Antiaggregant IC68=200 ug/ml PR13:597 ; Antialcoholic 2,000 mg/man/day PAM ; Antiarthritic PAM ; Antibacterial MIC=>1,000 ug/ml PM57:A42 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Antiedemic PAM ; Antiendotoxic PAM ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiflu PAM ; Antihepatitic 1 g 3x/day/man PAM ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiherpetic PAM ; Antihistaminic 1,000 mg 5x/day/man PAM ; Antihyperlipidemic JNP54:218 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=80 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM); Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilipoperoxidant PR13:597 ; Antiosteotic 500 mg 3x/day PAM ; Antioxidant 2.4 x Vit. E BO2 IC50=0.19 uM; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiprostaglandin IC50=80 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM) JNP61:8 ; Antiradicular IC50=8 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antisclerodermic PAM ; Antiulcer 1 g/5x/day/man/orl PAM ; Antiviral; Astringent M11 ; Cancer-Preventive DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; COMP-Inhibitor JCN70:1040 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC50=80 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM) JNP61:8 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Fungicide ED50=2.9-4.6 ug/ml 438 ; Hemostat PJB1(1):170 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:253 ; Hypocholesterolemic JNP54:218 ; Immunostimulant PAM ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC96=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic PH2 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

EO Flower 8,600 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Antiaggregant IC50=13 ug/ml EMP5:333 ; Antihepatotoxic 32 mg/kg PM53:37.1987 ; Antioxidant ED=uM XEN24:689 ; Antiperoxidant XEN24:689 ; Antiradicular XEN24:689 ; Antitumor LEL ; Cancer-Preventive 525


Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

MENTH-1-EN-4-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor ED50=1 uM DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor XEN24:689


Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Fungicide PHZ46:156 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-CYMOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Antispasmodic IWU ; Cholagogue DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC25=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Cancer-Preventive 525


No activity reported.


Hyperthermic HG22:45 ; Irritant RIN ; Spasmogenic FT59:465 ; Tumor-Promoter AEHD1:131


Allergenic LRN-APR93 ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic FT59:465 ; Convulsant RJH ; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JE26:72 ; Fungicide JAF40:2329 ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

RESIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l PHM1:145 ; Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml 452 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antisickling PM56(6):681 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Ascaricide DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide X15712986 ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Laxative MPI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps






382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:253: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 253.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG22:45: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 45.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCN70:1040: Dullo, A. G., et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, 70: 1040-1045.

JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP54:218: Choi, J.S., Yokozawa,* T., and Oura, H. Antihyperlipidemic Effect Of Flavonoids From Prunus davidiana. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 218-224, 1991.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:8: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

LEL: Lewis and Elvin-Lewis, Medical Botany, ca 1977

LRN-APR93: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):170: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM53:37.1987: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A42: Planta Medica, 57: A42, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:597: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

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YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace