Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae) -- Chinese Rhubarb

Identifier

019285

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae) -- Chinese Rhubarb


Chemicals

3,5,4'-TRIHYDROXYSTILBENE-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-(P-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-BUTANONE-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALOE-EMODIN Root: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial MIC=2-64 ug/ml; Antiherpetic AAC35:2463 ; Antileukemic; Antisalmonella CAN ; Antiseptic X10478467 ; Antistaphylococcic X10478467 ; Antitumor 1 ug/ml; Antiviral; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Calcium-Antagonist (strong activity); Candidicide MIC=25-250 ug/ml X10967452 ; Cathartic M11 ; Cytotoxic 20 ppm DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic X18563353 ; Fungicide MIC=25-250 ug/ml X10967452 ; Genotoxic JBH ; Laxative AEH113 ; Mutagenic AEH113 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Purgative ED50=>59.6 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Termitifuge JBH ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 1 mM MR371:165 IC50=741 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Tuberculostatic PEP

ALOE-EMODIN-8-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Rhizome 9,630 - 12,400 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CHRYSOPHANOL Root 690 - 3,190 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Calcium-Antagonist 5/6 aloeemodin LAB107 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Cathartic DUKE1992B ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Purgative ED50=>500 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Termitifuge JBH

CINNAMIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antiinflammatory PMP25:55 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-40 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide DUKE1992B ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=700 uM; Vermifuge JE26:81

COPPER Rhizome 6 - 10 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

D-CATECHOL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EMODIN Root: DUKE1992A

AGEs-Inhibitor IC50=118 uM X17978503 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=15.9 uM X17978503 ; Allergenic CAN ; Antiaggregant JNP33(3):630 ; Antiangiogenic; Antibacterial BOI ; Anticytomegalovirus ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiinflammatory 15 mg/kg IJE29:230 ; Antileukemic JBH ; Antilymphomic JNM7:51 ; AntiMRSA MIC 2-64 ug/ml X10478467 ; Antimutagenic FVT29:765 ; Antineoplastic JNM7:51 ; Antiplaque ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antiproliferant IC50=20-30 uM BO2 ; Antisarcomic PJB1(1):174 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antisprout PJB1(1):174 ; Antitumor (Breast) IJO16:197 ; Antiulcer 15 mg/kg IJE29:230 ; Antivaginitic AKT ; Antiviral EC50=1.1 PM56(6):651 ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Cathartic M11 ; CNS-Depressant 15 mg/kg ipr mus FT65(4):275 ; Collagenase-Inhibitor IC50=40 uM BO2 ; COX-2-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic CD50=2.6 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Differentiator IC50=20-30 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic X18563353 ; Genotoxic AEH113 ; Gonadotropic JE26:82 ; Hypolipidemic BOI ; Immunostimulant BOI ; Immunosuppressant EJP198:211 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X12391547 ; Leucocytogenic BOI ; MMP-2-Inhibitor X19291397 ; MMP-7-Inhibitor X19291397 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor X19291397 ; Mutagenic AEH114 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=60.7 uM X12391547 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12391547 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=23 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=25 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM IC50=19-37 uM BO2 ; Purgative ED50=>500 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 1 mM MR371:165 IC50=7 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Trichomonicide JE40:111 ; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Vasodilator EJP198:211 ; Vasorelaxant EJP198:211

GALLIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GLUCOSE Root: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

HYPERIN Root: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial PJB1(1):177 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive FT1990:501 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

IRON Rhizome 100 - 180 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

MAGNESIUM Rhizome 1,980 - 2,560 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Rhizome 19 - 46 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

PHYSCION Root: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Calcium-Antagonist 5/6 aloeemodin; Cathartic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Purgative ED50=>500 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195

PHYSCION-8-O-BETA-D-GENTIOBIOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHYSCION-DIGLUCOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Rhizome 6,330 - 21,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

QUERCITRIN Root: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=0.67 mM/ K25469 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 0.1-100 uM 0.5-4 ug/ml IC50=2 uM CPB38:2733 IC50=64 uM rat SPJ4:45 IC55=0.1 uM PM56(3):257 IC55=0.15 uM; Antiarrhythmic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticataract PM239:1986 ; Antiedemic KCH ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihemorrhagic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antiinflammatory KCH ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant IC50=120 uM PC27:972 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:76 ; Antistaphylococcic 0.412% HG40:24 ; Antithrombogenic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic LAF ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 200 uM HH2 ; Detoxicant LAF ; Diuretic KCH ; Dye M11 ; Hemostat JBH ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:189 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Insectiphile JBH ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; MAO-Inhibitor HG40:12 ; Paralytic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasopressor JE26:76

RHEIN Root: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticarcinomic IJO16:197 ; Anticariogenic PHZ49:681 ; Anticytomegalovirus ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antineoplastic JNM7:51 ; Antiplaque ED50=0.6 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor LTN-APR-92 ; Antiviral EC50=1.1 PM56(6):651 ED50=0.61 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Calcium-Antagonist 9/10 aloeemodin; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Cathartic PC29(10):3095 ; Cytotoxic CD50=3.4 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proteinase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Purgative ED50=97.5 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195

RHEINOSIDES Root 12,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RHEOSMIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SENNOSIDE-A Root 2,000 - 8,740 ppm DUKE1992A

Purgative ED50=13.5 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195

SENNOSIDE-B Root: DUKE1992A

Purgative ED50=13.9 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195

SODIUM Rhizome 140 - 175 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

TANNINS Root 50,000 - 100,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TETRARIN Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Rhizome 9 - 10 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Rhubarb

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC35:2463: Jim Duke's personal files

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH113: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH114: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AKT: TIllotson, A. K. (with Abel, Jr., R., Tillotson, N.H., Bajracharya, V.M.B.). 2001. The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know about Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments. Twin Streams, Kensington Publishing Corp. NY,NY. 596 pp

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

BBA1428:406: Mueller, S. O., Stopper, H. 1999. Characterization of the Genotoxicity of Anthraquinones in Mammalian Cells. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1428: 406-414.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:2733: Terashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of "Sinfito," Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP198:211: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:501: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(4):275: Jim Duke's personal files

FVT29:765: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:23: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:24: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

IJE29:230: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:195: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:197: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE40:111: Jim Duke's personal files

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP33(3):630: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K25469: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB107: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LTN-APR-92: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MR371:165: Muller, S. O., Eckert, I., Lutz, W. K., Stopper, H. 1996. Genotoxicity of the Laxative Drug Components Emodin, Aloe-emodin and Danthron in Mammalian Cells: Topoisomerase II Mediated? Mutat Res, 371: 165-173.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(10):3095: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ49:681: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PM239:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):257: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):651: Jim Duke's personal files

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:55: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SPJ4:45: Al-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10478467: Jim Duke's personal files

X10967452: Jim Duke's personal files

X12391547: Jim Duke's personal files

X13677356: Jim Duke's personal files

X15884816: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X17978503: Jim Duke's personal files

X18563353: Jim Duke's personal files

X19291397: Jim Duke's personal files

X2142592: Jim Duke's personal files

X9145218: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Tue Oct 27 14:03:22 EDT 2015