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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) -- Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint

Identifier

019415

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) -- Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint


Chemicals

(+)-DIHYDROCARVONE Leaf 550 - 13,750 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

(+)-ISOMENTHONE Leaf 23 - 575 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

(+)-MENTHOFURAN Leaf 4 - 100 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

(+)-NEOMENTHOL Leaf 1 - 25 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

(+)-PULEGONE Leaf 8,300 ppm; JAD

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM JAF45:677 IC50=136 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Irritant ZEB DUKE1992B ; Perfumery DUKE1992B

1,8-CINEOLE Plant 80 - 9,375 ppm BML GEO HHB

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

1-HYDROXY-2-ACETOXY-P-MENTH-8(9)-ENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-AMINO-ADIPIC-ACID Shoot 1.6 ppm; JAD

No activity reported.

2-AMYL-FURAN Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-ETHYL-FURAN Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHOXY-4-VINYL-PHENOL Shoot: JAD

FLavor FEMA 0.2-10 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

2-METHYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYL-ISOVALERATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-BUTYRALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-ETHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

2-METHYL-PROPAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

3(5',5'-DIMETHYL-TETRAHYDROFURAN-2'-YL)-BUT-CIS-2-EN-1-OL Leaf 3 - 75 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-BUTAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

4-HYDROXY-PIPERITONE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

5-HYDROXY-CARVONE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

5-METHYL-HEX-2-EN-1-AL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

8-HYDROXY-9-ACETOXY-MENTH-1-ENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ACETIC-ACID Plant: GEO

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ACETOIN Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ACETONE Leaf: JAD

Allergenic M&R722 ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Narcotic M29

ACETOPHENONE Leaf: JAD

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Fungicide PC29:1093 ; Hypnotic JBH ; Perfumery FEMA <10,000; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Soporific ARC

ALPHA-FENCHENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ALPHA-HUMULENE Leaf: JAD

Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Perfumery JBH

ALPHA-LIMONENE-1,2-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ALPHA-METHYL-P-METHYL-STYRENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 5 - 375 ppm BML CRC JAD

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Leaf: JAD

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-THUJENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

APIGENIN Leaf: HHB

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; AntiADD LIB ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm X11714299 IC50=9.52 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibacterial 452 ; Anticancer (Lung) X15947208 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC72=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM BO2 ; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM JE91:65.2004 ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast) BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin) MSC'96 ; Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist? BBA1115:69 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic FTS:1986 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM X10506109 IC>65=1,000 uM HHM7:7 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 IC50=9.5 uM JE91:65.2004 IC88=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC40=40 uM BO2 MIC=30 uM BO2 ; Diuretic JBH ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic 16% genistein BO2 EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=1 uM X10923837 ; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor X15947208 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive JBH ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X12909272 ; MAO-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant JBH ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15322261 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal JBH ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM MSC'96 ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Progestational X10989984 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM CLE120:213 ; Radioprotective PH2 ; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg PM61:213 ; Sunscreen MSC'96 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml JB118:312 IC28=18 uM BO2 IC45=180 uM BO2 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM PM69:1125

ARGININE Leaf: JAD

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ASH Plant 16,000 - 94,000 ppm WOI

No activity reported.

BENZALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

Allergenic M&R594 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial LAF337 ; Anticancer ARO95:16 ; Antimutagenic X10563930 ; Antipeptic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor ARO95:16 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 150-800 ARC ; Immunostimulant ARO95:16 ; Insecticide LAF ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Narcotic M11 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g X11879008 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.82 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=820 uM ID50=830 uM JAF50:1400 ID50=87 ug/ml JAF46:1268

BENZYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BENZYL-ALCOHOL Leaf: JAD

Allergenic M29 ; Anesthetic MAR ; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic M29 ; FLavor Fema 200-1,200 ARC ; Fungicide X16719518 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JA6(4):40

BENZYL-ISOBUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 25 ARC

BETA-BOURBONENE Leaf 2 - 50 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Leaf 2 - 10 ppm CRC WOI

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-ELEMENE Leaf: BML

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-HUMULENE Leaf: BML

No activity reported.

BETA-IONONE Leaf: JAD

Allergenic CD33:333 ; Antibacterial MIC=200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic MIC=100 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=140 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Fungicide; Hypocholesterolemic JAF43:2144 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

BETA-LIMONENE-1,2-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-ALCOHOL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-ISOBUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-ISOVALERATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PHENETHYL-METHYL-ETHER Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BETA-PINENE Leaf 9 - 3,425 ppm BML CRC JAD

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SITOSTEROL Leaf: JAD

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BICYCLOELEMENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

BORNEOL Leaf: JAD

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BUTYRIC-ACID Plant: GEO

Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CADINOL Leaf: BML

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Plant 2,000 - 11,760 ppm WOI

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPHENE Leaf: BML

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CAPROIC-ACID Plant: GEO

Irritant M&R503

CAPRYLIC-ACID Plant: GEO

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAR-3-ENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Plant 80,000 - 588,300 ppm WOI

No activity reported.

CARVACROL Leaf: BML

Allergenic M&R240 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC 170-290 PMP25:184 MIC=39-625 450 ; Anticholinesterase? LGR ; Antidiuretic LRN-MAR92 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=4 uM DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antioxidant JEO5:153 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiprostaglandin DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 600 x thymol JEO5:153 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Antitussive CAN ; Candidicide 100-150 ug/ml JE58:143 MIC<0.1 ug/ml JAN47(4) ; Carminative LAF ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor =indomethacin DFN:161 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 10-125 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

CARVONE Leaf: JAD Plant 495 - 20,000 ppm BML GEO HHB JBH JAD

Allergenic M&R683 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol W&W ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JNP65:953 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000 ARC ; Fungistat JNP65:953 ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermicide DUKE1992B

CARVONE-10-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CARVONE-8,9-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CARVYL-6,7-OXIDE-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE Leaf 3 - 1,950 ppm BML HHB JAD

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CHLOROFORM Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CHLOROPHYLL-A Leaf 2,755 ppm; JAD

No activity reported.

CHLOROPHYLL-B Leaf 1,299 ppm; JAD

No activity reported.

CINEOLE Leaf 10 - 1,500 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

CIS-2,5-DIETHYL-TETRAHYDROFURAN Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CIS-BETA-COPAENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CIS-CARVEOL Leaf 4 - 100 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

CIS-CARVONE-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CIS-CARVYL-ACETATE Leaf 18 - 450 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

CIS-CARVYL-FORMATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

CIS-JASMONE Leaf 1 - 25 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

COPAENE Leaf: JAD

Carminative PJB1(1):172

COPPER Plant 1 - 2 ppm WOI

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

DECAN-1-OL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

DECAN-3-OL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

DEHYDROCARVACROL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

DELTA-CADINENE Leaf 2 - 38 ppm BML HHB

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DIACETYL Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 3-50 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

DIHYDROCARVEOL Leaf 13 - 325 ppm BML HHB

FLavor FEMA 5-500 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

DIHYDROCARVONE Leaf 18 - 4,475 ppm BML HHB JAD

No activity reported.

DIHYDROCARVYL-ACETATE Leaf 16 - 400 ppm BML HHB

FLavor FEMA 5-500 ARC

DIMETHYL-SULFIDE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 0.1-2 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

DIMETHYL-SULFOXIDE Leaf: JAD

Antioxidant MAR

DIOSMETIN Plant: JBH 411

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC17=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antialzheimeran X18593176 ; Antidementia X18593176 ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antirhinoviral EMP5:197 ; Antiviral EMP5:197 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic EC50=2.9 uM X10923837 ; NO-Inhibitor EC50=19 uM X18593176 ; Osteoblastogenic X18683850 ; PPAR-Gamma-Antagonist X19053389 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor EC50=39 uM X18593176 IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365

DIOSMETIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: GEO

No activity reported.

DIOSMETIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

DIOSMIN Leaf: HHB

Anticancer; Anticapillary-Fragility 300 mg/2x/day/woman MAR ; Anticarcinogenic X9398052 ; Anticlastogen JAF48:1738 ; AntiCVI JAF52:324 ; Anticytotoxic X14750029 ; Antiedemic 50-200 mg/kg/day 600 mg/kg rat CAN ; Antihemorrhoidal 450 mg 2x/day x7days then 1x/day x2months; Antihistaminic LAF ; Antiinflammatory 600 mg/kg rat; Antileukotriene JAF45:4505 ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimetrorrhagic FT55.1984 ; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant X3355718 ; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin JAF45:4505 ; Antiradicular X12972089 ; Antithromboxane JAF45:4505 ; Antiulcer X12972089 ; Chemopreventive; COMT-Inhibitor 200-400 mg/kg ip X3789890 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Cytoprotective X14750029 ; Diuretic LAF ; Hypoglycemic JAF45:4505 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; MDR-Inhibitor 100 uM BP48:1437 ; P450-Inhibitor X12972089 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Venoprotective X16104801 ; Venotonic

ELEMOL Leaf: BML

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=34 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiulcer X10823671

EO Leaf 1,000 - 25,000 ppm GEO HHB

No activity reported.

EPIBULGARENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

EPIMUUROLENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ETHANOL Leaf: JAD

Allergenic M&R722 ; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat BBE 6,000 orl rat BBE ; Anhydrotic M29 ; Antiatherosclerotic PMID11020457 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antipruritic MAR ; Antiseptic M11 ; CNS-Depressant MAR ; Expectorant SHT ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypertensive >1 drink/day X7760897 ; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone M29 ; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat BBE ; Hypotensive 1 drink/day X7760897 ; Mucotropic SHT ; Neurolytic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Sclerosant M29 ; Surfactant SHT ; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog BBE ; Tremorilytic MAR ; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

ETHYL-ISOBUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

ETHYL-N-VALERATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Leaf: BML

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FARNESENE Leaf: BML

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FARNESOL Leaf: BML

Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiadenomic BBR225:869 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=39 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticarcinomic (Colon) JBT117:11 ; Anticarcinomic (Lung) BBR225:869 ; Antileukemic JBT117:11 ; Antimelanomic IC50=50 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):174 ; Apoptotic JBT117:11 ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-3 ARC ; Juvabional 450 ; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromonal PJB1(3):238 ; Sedative PJB1(1):174 ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

FAT Plant 6,000 - 35,294 ppm WOI

No activity reported.

FIBER Plant 20,000 - 118,000 ppm CRC

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FURFURAL Leaf: JAD

Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GAMMA-CADINENE Leaf 2 - 33 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TERPINENE Leaf: JAD

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GERANIOL Leaf: BML

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GERANYL-ACETONE Leaf: JAD

Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

HEPT-CIS-4-EN-1-AL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPT-TRANS-2-EN-1-AL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-1-AL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-1-YL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-1-YL-ISOVALERATE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-3-OL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-3-ONE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

HESPERIDIN Plant: HHB

Analgesic NSN1(5):21 ; Anti-LDL NSN1(5):21 ; Antiallergenic YAK111:193 ; Antibradykinic EMP5:366 ; Anticapillary-Fragility PJB1(1):177 ; AntiDNA DUKE1992B ; Antiflu EMP5:197 ; Antihistaminic JAF45:4505 ; Antiinflammatory IC47=50 mg/kg scu JPP46:118 IC63=100 mg/kg scu JPP46:118 ; Antileukotriene JAF45:4505 ; Antioxidant IC50=8 ppm PC37:1463 ; Antiprostaglandin JAF45:4505 ; AntiRNA DUKE1992B ; Antistomatitic DUKE1992B ; Antitriglyceride NSN1(5):21 ; Antiulcer 100-150 mg/kg ipr JNP67:359 ; Antivaccinia EMP5:197 ; Antiviral V&D ; Anxiolytic JNP67:359 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Capillariprotective M29 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant 100-150 mg/kg ipr JNP67:359 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Hypolipidemic JAF45:4505 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF45:4505 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; ProHLDL NSN1(5):21 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL-ISOBUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL-ISOVALERATE Leaf 2 - 50 ppm BML HHB JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-CIS-3-EN-1-OL-PHENYLACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-TRANS-2-EN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-TRANS-2-EN-1-OL-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEX-TRANS-3-EN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAHYDRO-FARNESYL-ACTONE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAN-1-AL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAN-1-YL-2-ISOVALERATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAN-1-YL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

HEXAN-1-YL-PHENYLACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

IRON Plant 156 - 918 ppm CRC WOI

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOAMYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

ISOAMYL-ISOVALERATE Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

ISOBORNYL-ACETATE Leaf 11 - 275 ppm BML HHB

Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOBUTYL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

Perfumery DUKE1992B

ISOCARYOPHYLLENE Leaf: JAD

Perfumery JBH

ISODIHYDROCARVONE Leaf 75 - 1,875 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

ISOLEUCINE Leaf: JAD

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISOMENTHONE Leaf 50 - 125 ppm BML HHB

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.6 mM JAF45:677 ; Antioxidant X12802721 ; Antiradicular X12802721

ISOPINOCAMPHONE Leaf: JAD

Convulsant LRNSEP'96 ; Epileptigenic ARO95:23 ; Neurotoxic; Pesticide DUKE1992B

JASMONE Leaf: JAD

Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Insectiphile JBH ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=200 ug/ml FT67:279

L-PHELLANDRENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LAVANDULYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

LEUCINE Leaf: JAD

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LF Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Plant 7 - 9,075 ppm BML GEO HHB JAD

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LIMONENENE-8,9-OXIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

LINALOL Plant 11 - 9,375 ppm BML GEO HHB

No activity reported.

LUTEOLIN Leaf: HHB

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor EC=3 ppm FT64:131 IC50=0.45 uM rat; Antiallergic X11216484 ; Antiangiogenic IC60-75=10 uM; Antiatherogenic X11216484 ; Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF48:235 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticataract EC=3 ppm FT64:131 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatic BIS ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antiherpetic 11-23 ug/ml; Antihistaminic <10-15 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory =indomethacin WIC ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM; Antilymphomic AJC31:37 ; Antimelanomic AJC31:37 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.44 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antipolio EMP5:197 ; Antiproliferant X12224631 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Thyroid) 12-50 uM BO2 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral 11-23 ug/ml; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Apoptotic 12-50 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC35=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X11216484 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC>40=40 uM BO2 ; Diuretic PT5:1986 ; Estrogenic 58% genistein; Hepatoprotective FT66:400 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=100-250 uM BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAC9:158 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Myorelaxant AYL-84 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X15102332 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor JAF49:3106 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC70=50 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Succinoxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.44 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220 ; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=0.11 ug/ml CPB38:1772

LUTEOLIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

LYSINE Leaf: JAD

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MENTHOL Leaf 375 ppm; BML HHB JAD 8 - 200 ppm JAD

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic MAR ; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiasthmatic MAB ; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiinflammatory MAR ; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic JPP46:16 ; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180 ; Antirheumatic MAR ; Antisalmonella X12083863 ; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Antivaginitic FEL ; Antivulvitic FEL ; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR ; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200 ; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16 ; Bronchorrheic ACM:200 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant KCH ; Congestant JPP46:16 ; Convulsant RJH ; Counterirritant DUKE1992B ; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652 ; Dermatitigenic M&R654 ; Diaphoretic KCH ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JPP46:16 ; Gastrosedative M11 ; Irritant JPP46:16 ; Myorelaxant M29 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurodepressant JPP46:16 ; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16 ; Nociceptive JPP46:16 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Refrigerant JPP46:16 ; Rubefacient DUKE1992B ; Termiticide 382 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

MENTHOL-ACETATE Leaf 375 ppm; BML HHB JAD

No activity reported.

MENTHONE Leaf 4 - 1,300 ppm BML HHB 438 - 10,950 ppm JAD

Acaricide X11124373 ; Allelopathic X12083883 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; FLavor FEMA 5-50 ARC ; Fungicide X12083883 ; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Mutagenic AEHD1:176 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive X12083883 ; Sedative JE25:165 ; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml FT67:279

METHANOL Leaf: JAD

Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate M29 ; AntiHIV EC50=<20 ug/ml DUKE1992B

METHIONINE Leaf: JAD

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-HEPTENONE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

MYRCENE Plant 21 - 1,350 ppm JAD

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRTENAL Leaf: JAD

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Herbicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRTENOL Leaf: JAD

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS

MYRTENYL-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

Perfumery ARC

N-BUTYRALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA <1-5 ARC

N-VALERALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 1-5 ARC

NEO-ISOPULEGOL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

NEODIHYDROCARVEOL Leaf 3 - 75 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

NERYL-ACETATE Leaf 27 - 675 ppm BML HHB

Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-15 ARC ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NIACIN Plant 4 - 24 ppm WOI

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

NONAN-1-AL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

NONAN-3-OL Plant: JAD

No activity reported.

OCT-1-EN-3-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-AL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-OL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-OL-FORMATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-OL Leaf 4 - 100 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-OL-ACETATE Leaf 2 - 25 ppm BML HHB JAD

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-ONE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

OLEANOLIC-ACID Leaf: JAD

Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161

OXALIC-ACID Leaf 38 ppm; WBB

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-CYMEN-8-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-CYMENE Leaf: JAD

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

P-CYMOL Leaf 3 - 75 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-1(7)-EN-8-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-1,8-DIEN-4-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-CIS-1(7),8-DIEN-2-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-CIS-2-EN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-TRANS-1(7),8-DIEN-2-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-TRANS-1(7),8-DIEN-2-YL-ACETATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

P-MENTH-TRANS-2,8-DIEN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PENT-1-EN-3-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PENT-CIS-1-EN-3-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PENTAN-1-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PERILLALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

Acaricide X12137464 ; Antibacterial MIC=500->1,000 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic JNP65:953 ; Candidicide MIC=500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Fungicide MIC=250-500 ug/ml JAF40:2330 ; Mutagenic PH2 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Sedative PH2 ; Vibriocide 250 ug/ml HH3

PERILLYL-ALCOHOL Leaf 1 - 25 ppm BML HHB

Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=290 uM; Antimelanomic IC50=250 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiproliferant DND23:676 ; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) CR57:420 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Apoptotic CR57:420 ; Candidicide JAF40:2329 ; Chemopreventive; Fungicide JAF40:2329 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PHENETHYL-ALCOHOL Leaf: JAD

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiseptic M11 ; FLavor PJB1(2):280 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162

PHENLYALANINE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PHENYL-ACETALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 0.8-10 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

PHOSPHORUS Plant 800 - 4,706 ppm WOI

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PIN-TRANS-3-EN-2-OL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PINOCAMPHONE Leaf: JAD

Convulsant >0.05 mg/kg ipr rat; Epileptigenic ARO95:23 ; Neurotoxic; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PINOCARVEOL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PINOCARVONE Leaf: JAD

Perfumery ARC

PIPERITENONE Leaf: JAD

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=110 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Perfumery ARC ; Toxic 10,000/man ARC

PIPERITENONE-OXIDE Plant: CCO

Insecticide JEO4:57 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PIPERITONE Leaf 24 - 600 ppm JAD Plant: CCO

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-2 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 IC50=75 uM TOX ; Insectifuge (> DEET) JNP56:935 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PIPERITONE-OXIDE Leaf 35 - 875 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

POMOLIC-ACID Leaf: JAD

AntiHIV EC50=1.4 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=23.3 ug/ml JNP61:1090

PROPAN-1-YL-2-METHYL-BUTYRATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PROPIONALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

FLavor FEMA 5-12 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

PROTEIN Plant 48,000 - 282,240 ppm WOI

No activity reported.

PSI-LIMONENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

PULEGONE Leaf 1 - 475 ppm JAD

AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM JAF45:677 IC50=136 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antibacterial PM57:347 ; Anticholinesterase 453 ; Antihistaminic JPP42:295 ; Antipyretic JE25:165.1989 ; Avifuge DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PM57:347 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Encephalopathic 80 mg/kg orl rat LRN-JAN92 ; FLavor FEMA 5-30 ARC ; Fungicide PM57:347 ; Glutathionalytic LRN-JAN92 ; Hallucinogenic RJH ; Hepatotoxic PM56(2):226 ; Herbicide IC50=1.5 uM TOX ; Insecticide 453 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Nephrotoxic RJH ; Neurotoxic; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pulifuge DUKE1992B ; Pulmonotoxic; Sedative JE25:165.1989

RIBOFLAVIN Plant 1 - 5 ppm WOI

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

ROSMARINIC-ACID Leaf 6,300 ppm; JAD Plant 43,000 ppm; FT62:166 Shoot 5,900 ppm; JAD

ABeta-Inhibitor X16495207 ; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor CPB37:1287 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor X16249088 ; Antiaggregant LAF ; Antiallergic BPB24:1206 ; Antialzheimeran X16524383 ; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl IJI10:729 ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat DUKE1992B ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat DUKE1992B ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial PM55:663 ; Anticoagulant LAF ; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antidepressant X11917505 ; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims IJI10:729 ; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l IJI10:729 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml V&D EC50=20 ug/ml POP:270 ; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihyperthyroid X6724503 ; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antilipoperoxidant PM56:173 ; Antimutagenic X16536576 ; Antinephritic JNP59:843 ; Antioxidant 10 uM PHM7:7 EC50=2.7 ug/ml FT62:170 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque X16524383 ; Antiproliferant X11270716 ; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l HH2 ; Antipulmonotic VET94 ; Antiradicular PM56:173 ; Antishock IJI10:735 ; Antithyreotropic DUKE1992B ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antiuremic JNP59:843 ; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X11917505 ; Apoptotic X16534555 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml POP:270 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Immunomodulator JAF50:5878 ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF46:4545 ; Neuroprotective X16495207 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective X16536576

ROTUNDIFOLINE Plant: JBH

No activity reported.

SABINENE Leaf: JAD

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SABINENE-HYDRATE Leaf 4 - 300 ppm JAD

No activity reported.

SACCHAROPINE Shoot 1.6 ppm; JAD

No activity reported.

SALICYLIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

STIGMASTEROL Leaf: JAD

Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

TERPINEN-4-OL Leaf: JAD

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TERPINOLENE Leaf: JAD

Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antioxidant X14664510 ; Deodorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 15-60 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THIAMIN Plant 1 - 3 ppm WOI

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THREONINE Leaf: JAD

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

THYMOL Leaf: JAD

Acaricide X10826162 ; Allergenic M&R366 ; Analgesic MAD ; Ancylostomicide MAD ; Anesthetic MAD ; Ankylostomacide MAD ; Anthelmintic 411 ; Antiacne NIG ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.75 TRA42:511 ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml; Antibronchitic MAD ; Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Antilepric MAD ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 100 ppm MAR ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiradicular EC=60 JEO5:153 ; Antirheumatic 411 ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antiseptic 20 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antitrichinosic 5% MAD ; Antitussive IWU ; Ataxigenic ZEB ; Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin) JE58:143 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Counterirritant NIG ; Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Dentifrice ARC ; Deodorant MAR ; Dermatitigenic M&R366 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Enterotoxic WIC ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 2-100 ARC ; Fungicide M11 ; Gastroirritant M29 ; Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly JAF50:4576 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Larvicide 10 ppm 454 58 ppm X10701181 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Molluscicide PR13:649 ; Myorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Sprout-Inhibitor PER.COM.SFV ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Urinary-Antiseptic 411 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vermicide MAD

TIGLALDEHYDE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TOLUENE Leaf: JAD

Encephalopathic M29

TRANS-BETA-COPAENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TRANS-BETA-OCIMENE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TRANS-CARVEOL Leaf 2 - 50 ppm BML HHB

Antiasthmatic PJB1(2):264

TRANS-CARVYL-ACETATE Leaf 3 - 75 ppm BML HHB

No activity reported.

TRANS-CARVYL-FORMATE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TRANS-JASMONE Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TRANS-VERBENOL Leaf: JAD

No activity reported.

TRYPTOPHAN Leaf: JAD

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

URSOLIC-ACID Leaf: JAD

Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

VALERIC-ACID Plant: GEO

Antihysteric MAR ; Antiinsomniac 1.2-2.4 DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:86 ; FLavor FEMA 1-8 ARC ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant JE26:86 ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative DUKE1992B ; Tranquilizer DUKE1992B

VALINE Leaf: JAD

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

VANILLIN Leaf: JAD

Allelochemic IC50=4.26 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R416 ; Antianemic X15180869 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antidrepanocytic X15180869 ; Antiescherichic 10-100 mmol/l X15186447 ; Antilactobacillic X15186447 ; Antilisteria X14968973 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant =ascorbic acid; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antisickling; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral EMP5:194 ; Antiyeast 8-30 mM X14968976 ; Bacteristat 10-40 mmol/l X15186447 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide 8-20 mM X14968976 ; Choleretic RIN ; FLavor FEMA 50-20,000 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Insectifuge? MAR ; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide DUKE1992B

VERBENONE Leaf: JAD

Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Coleopterifuge JAF45:3276 ; Insectifuge JAF45:3276 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

VIRIDIFLOROL Leaf: JAD

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=25 ug/ml JAF46:3434

WATER Plant 830,000 ppm; WOI

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Mint

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

451: Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

454: Berenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:211: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:176: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARO95:16: Jim Duke's personal files

ARO95:23: Jim Duke's personal files

AYL-84: Jim Duke's personal files

BBA1115:69: Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BBR216:198: Jim Duke's personal files

BBR225:869: Jim Duke's personal files

BCI28:735: Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BML: Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980. Note: Three annual compilations on essential oils. Percentages multiplied by 250-10,000 ppm and rounded to get fresh and dry weights.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BP48:1437: Critchfield, J. W., Welsh, C. J., Phang, J. M., Yeh, G. C. 1994. Modulation of Adriamycin Accumulation and Efflux by Flavonoids in HCT-15 Colon Cells. Activation of P-Glycoprotein as a Putative Mechanism. Biochem Pharmacol, 48(7): 1437-1445.

BPB24:1206: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CD33:333: Jim Duke's personal files

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB37:1287: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CR57:420: Jim Duke's personal files

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:161: Jim Duke's personal files

DND23:676: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP5:366: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 366.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT55.1984: Fitoterapia No.55-1984.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT62:166: Fitoterapia No.62: 166.

FT62:170: Parveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:131: Shin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:400: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

FTS:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

GEO: Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJI10:729: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.

IJI10:735: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JA6(4):40: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC9:158: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:1268: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:4545: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3106: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5878: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:324: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAN47(4): Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR4:24: J. Aromatherapy 4: 24.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JB118:312: Azuma, Y., Onishi, Y., Sato, Y., Kizaki, H. 1995. Effects of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors With Different Modes of Action on Topoisomerase Activity and Death of IL-2-Dependent CTLL-2-Cells. J Biochemistry, 118: 312-318.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JBT117:11: Jim Duke's personal files

JE25:165: Ortiz de Urbina, A.V., Martin*, M.L., Montero, M.J., Moran, A., and San Roman, L. 1988. Sedating and Antipyretic Activity of the Essential Oil of Calamintha sylvatica subsp. Ascendens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 25: 165-171, 1989.

JE25:165.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JE58:143: Jim Duke's personal files

JE91:65.2004: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JEO4:57: Shah, G.C., Bhandari, R. & Mathela, C.S. 1992. 1,2-Epoxy-p-Menthane Derivatives from some Labiatae Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 57-59.

JEO5:153: Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:455: Aquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP56:935: Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:843: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:295: Ortiz De Urbina, A.V., Martin, M.L., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., Sevilla, M.A., San Roman, L. 1989. Antihistaminic activity of pulegone on the guinea-pig ileum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 295-296, 1990.

JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:118: Da Silva Emim, J.A., Oliveira, A.B. and Lapa, A.J. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Activity of a Citrus Bioflavonoid, Hesperidin, and the Isoflavonoids, Duartin and Claussequinone, in Rats and Mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46:118-122,1994

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF351: Jim Duke's personal files

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LIB: Jim Duke's personal files

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JAN92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-92.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-MAR92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-92.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

LRNSEP'96: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R240: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R366: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R416: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R489: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R594: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R654: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R683: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NSN1(5):21: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29:1093: Tomas-Barberan, F., Iniesta-Sanmartin, E., Tomas-Lorente, F., and Rumbero, A. 1989. Antimicrobial Phenolic Compounds From Three Spanish Helichrysum Species. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1093-1095. 1990.

PC37:1463: Phytochemistry, 37: 1463.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PER.COM.SFV: Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):280: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM55:663: Planta Medica, 55: 663.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):226: Lewis, E.J. and Friedrich, E.C. 1989. The Essential Oil of Poliomintha incana. Planta Medica 56(2): 224-226, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:347: Economou, D., and Nahrstedt, A. 1991. Chemical, Physiological, and Toxicological Aspects of the Essential Oil of Some Species of the Genus Bystropogon*. Planta Medica, 57: 347, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM61:213: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:113: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:184: Chalchat, J.C. et Garry, R.P.*, Bastide, P., Fabre, F. et Malhuret, R. Correlation Composition Chimique/Activite Antimicrobienne: V - Contribution a la Comparaison de 2 Methodes de Determination Des Cmi. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 25: 184-193.

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:649: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

PT4:118: Jim Duke's personal files

PT5:1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TR42:511: Jim Duke's personal files

TRA42:511: Tramil, 42: 511.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

VET94: Tyler, V.E.. 1994.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

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YAK111:193: Yakugaku Zasshi, 111: 193, 1991.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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