Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)


This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)

Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) -- European Pennyroyal



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) -- European Pennyroyal


(+)-CAMPHENE Plant 106 - 212 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-ISOISOPULEGONE Plant 22 - 76 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-ISOMENTHONE Plant 521 - 4,140 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

(+)-LIMONENE Plant 10 - 290 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-MENTHOL Plant 1,624 - 3,248 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2 mM

(+)-MENTHONE Plant 680 - 1,360 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-NEOISOMENTHOL Plant 65 - 1,150 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-NEOMENTHOL Plant 1 - 604 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-OCTAN-3-OL Plant 149 - 416 ppm

No activity reported.

(+)-PULEGONE Plant 19,400 ppm;

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM IC50=136 ug/ml; Irritant ZEB; Perfumery


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

1,8-CINEOLE Plant 20 ppm;

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic; Anesthetic; Anthelmintic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic; Anticariogenic; Anticatarrh; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue; Antihalitosic; Antiinflammatory; Antilaryngitic; Antinociceptive; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antirheumatic; Antirhinitic; Antiseptic; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm; Antitussive; Antiulcer; Candidicide; Carcinogenic; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml; Dentifrice; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 1-200; Fungicide; Gastroprotective; Gram(+)icide; Gram(-)icide; Hepatotonic; Herbicide IC50=78 uM; Hypotensive; Inflammatory inj; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide; Neurotoxic; P450-Inducer; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin; Perfume; Pesticide; Rubefacient; Secretogogue; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Surfactant; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer; Transdermal; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml

1-METHYL-CYCLOHEX-1-EN-3-ONE Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

1-METHYL-CYCLOHEX-1-ONE Essential Oil:

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

1-METHYL-CYCLOHEXAN-3-ONE Essential Oil 80 - 160 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

3-METHYL-CYCLOHEXANONE Plant 70 - 140 ppm

No activity reported.

3-OCTYL-ACETATE Plant 10 - 80 ppm

No activity reported.

ACETIC-ACID Essential Oil:

Acidulant; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm; Antiotitic; Antisalmonella; Antivaginitic 1-2%; Expectorant; Fungicide; Keratitigenic; Mucolytic; Osteolytic; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm; Pesticide; Protisticide; Spermicide; Ulcerogenic; Verrucolytic

ALPHA-HUMULENE Plant 70 - 140 ppm

Antitumor; Perfumery

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Plant 30 - 60 ppm

Antibacterial; Antistaphylococcic; Dermal; Emetic; FLavor FEMA 10-130; Fungicide; Insectiphile; Irritant; Laxative; Perfumery; Pesticide

ALPHA-PINENE Plant 20 - 520 ppm

Allelochemic; Allergenic; Antiacne; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Coleoptophile; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-150; Herbicide IC50=30 uM; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Irritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer; Transdermal


Acaricide; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity); Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM; Antinitrosaminic; Antispasmodic; FLavor FEMA 1-40; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly; Insectifuge; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Plant 70 - 140 ppm

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity); Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Allelopathic; Antiacne; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml; Anticancer; Anticariogenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiproliferant; Antiseptic; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus; FLavor FEMA 5-40; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor; Mosquitofuge > Deet; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus

ALUMINUM Plant 1,850 ppm;

Antisilicotic; Antivaginitic; Candidicide; Encephalopathic; Pesticide


Antiseptic; Cancer-Preventive; Pesticide

ASH Plant 73,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

BETA-BOURBONENE Plant 15 - 30 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

BETA-FENCHENE Plant 1 - 6 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Plant 3 - 400 ppm

Expectorant; Fungicide; Perfumery

BETA-PINENE Plant 20 - 288 ppm

Allergenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 15-600; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic; Transdermal

BUTYRIC-ACID Essential Oil:

Anticancer; Antitumor; Apoptotic; Bruchifuge; Nematistat 880 ug/ml; Pesticide

CADINENE Plant 87 - 174 ppm

Antifeedant; FLavor FEMA 400-4,000; Perfumery; Pesticide

CALCIUM Plant 9,440 - 16,870 ppm

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidote (Aluminum); Antidote (Lead); Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day; Antitic; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day; Hypotensive 1 g/day; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day; Vasodilator

CAMPHENE Plant 1 - 70 ppm

Allelopathic; Antilithic?; Antioxidant; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-175; Hypocholesterolemic?; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Spasmogenic

CARVACROL Plant 100 - 400 ppm

Allergenic; Anesthetic; Anthelmintic; Antialzheimeran?; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=5.53 uM; Antibacterial MIC 170-290 MIC=39-625; Anticholinesterase?; Antidiuretic; Antiinflammatory IC50=4 uM; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l; Antioxidant; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=5.53 uM; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml; Antiprostaglandin; Antiradicular 600 x thymol; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Antitussive; Candidicide 100-150 ug/ml MIC<0.1 ug/ml; Carminative; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor =indomethacin; Enterorelaxant; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 10-125; Fungicide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor; Tracheorelaxant; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml; Vermifuge

CARVONE Essential Oil:

Allergenic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM; Antiproliferative; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Carminative; CNS-Stimulant; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000; Fungistat; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml; Vermicide

CARYOPHYLLENE Plant 10 - 60 ppm

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiacne; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml; Antidermatitic; Antiedemic; Antifeedant 500 ppm; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM; Antileishmanic; Antionychyotic; Antiproliferant; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 20-200; Fungicide; Gastroprotective; Insectifuge; Irritant; Larvicide; Mosquitocide; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Termitifuge

CHROMIUM Plant 17 ppm;

Amphiglycemic?; Antiacne; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug; Antiaging; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug; Anticorneotic; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead); Antifatigue 200 ug; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Cardioprotective; Energizer; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day 200-1,000 ug; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Insulinogenic; Memorigenic

CINEOLE Plant 2 - 600 ppm

No activity reported.

CIS-ISOPULEGONE Plant 20 - 120 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

CITRONELLOL Plant 90 - 180 ppm

Allergenic; Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 1-50; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=160 uM; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml

COBALT Plant 14 ppm;

Cardiomyopathogenic; Erythrocytogenic

CYMOL Plant 160 - 320 ppm

No activity reported.

DECYLIC-ACID Essential Oil:

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Anticancer; Anticapillary-Fragility 300 mg/2x/day/woman; Anticarcinogenic; Anticlastogen; AntiCVI; Anticytotoxic; Antiedemic 50-200 mg/kg/day 600 mg/kg rat; Antihemorrhoidal 450 mg 2x/day x7days then 1x/day x2months; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory 600 mg/kg rat; Antileukotriene; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimetrorrhagic; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin; Antiradicular; Antithromboxane; Antiulcer; Chemopreventive; COMT-Inhibitor 200-400 mg/kg ip; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytoprotective; Diuretic; Hypoglycemic; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MDR-Inhibitor 100 uM; P450-Inhibitor; Radioprotective; Venoprotective; Venotonic


Allergenic; Antibacterial; Antiviral; Expectorant; Irritant; Pesticide; Sedative

EO Plant 10,000 - 20,000 ppm

No activity reported.

EUGENOL Plant 160 - 320 ppm

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic; Analgesic; Anesthetic 200-400; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM; Antiarachidonate; Antibacterial 500 ppm MBC=400 ug/ml; Anticonvulsant; Antiedemic 100; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml; Antimitotic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosating; Antioxidant 10 uM IC65=30 ppm; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM IC50=9.2 mM; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day 400 ug/ml; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antithromboxane; AntiTNF; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml; Apifuge; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg IC50=224 uM; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Carcinogenic?; Carminative; Choleretic; CNS-Depressant; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM IC>97=1,000 uM; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml; Dermatitigenic; Enterorelaxant; FLavor FEMA 10-500; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm; Herbicide; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Juvabional; Larvicide; Motor-Depressant; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml; Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml; Trypsin-Enhancer; Ulcerogenic; Varroacide; Vasodilator; Vermifuge

FAT Plant 45,000 ppm; Seed 266,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

FENCHENE Plant 70 - 140 ppm

No activity reported.

FENCHONE Plant 10 - 20 ppm

Antialzheimeran?; Anticholinesterase; Counterirritant; FLavor FEMA 0.1-5; Perfumery; Secretolytic

FIBER Plant 123,000 ppm;

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antidiabetic; Antihypertensive; Antiobesity; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Beta-Blocker; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl; Hypouricemic; Laxative; Vasodilator

FORMIC-ACID Essential Oil:

Acaricide; Antiseptic; Antisyncopic; Astringent; Corrosive; Counterirritant; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500; Fungistat; Fungitoxic; Irritant; Pesticide; Preservative; Toxic


Acaricide; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity); Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM; Antifeedant; Antioxidant; FLavor FEMA 1-40; Insectifuge; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide


Pesticide; Pheromone


Antiallergic; Antiinflammatory; Antileprotic; Antipeptic; Antipyretic; Antiulcer


Analgesic; Anti-LDL; Antiallergenic; Antibradykinic; Anticapillary-Fragility; AntiDNA; Antiflu; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory IC47=50 mg/kg scu IC63=100 mg/kg scu; Antileukotriene; Antioxidant IC50=8 ppm; Antiprostaglandin; AntiRNA; Antistomatitic; Antitriglyceride; Antiulcer 100-150 mg/kg ipr; Antivaccinia; Antiviral; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Capillariprotective; Catabolic; Choleretic; CNS-Depressant 100-150 mg/kg ipr; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Hypolipidemic; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; ProHLDL; Vasopressor

HEXAN-1-OL Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

IRON Plant 2,310 ppm;

Antiakathisic; Antianemic; Anticanker; Anticheilitic; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl; Prooxidant


No activity reported.

ISOMENTHOL Plant 1 - 10 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC29=1.2 mM

ISOMENTHONE Plant 8,420 ppm;

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.6 mM; Antioxidant; Antiradicular


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

ISOPULEGOL Plant 680 - 1,360 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM; FLavor FEMA 5-30; Perfumery

ISOPULEGONE Plant 65 - 2,014 ppm

FLavor FEMA 5-15; Hepatotoxic; Perfumery; Pulmonotoxic

KILOCALORIES Plant 3,490 /kg;

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Essential Oil:

Antibacterial; Antioxidant IC71=60; Antiviral; Candidicide; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100; Hypercholesterolemic

LIMONENE Plant 10 - 2,200 ppm 41 - 148 ppm

Acaricide LC100=8 uM; AChE-Inhibitor; Allelochemic; Allergenic 1/20th carene; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM; Antiadenomic; Antialzheimeran?; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Antiesophagitic; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory; Antilithic; Antilymphomic; Antimetastatic (Stomach); Antimutagenic; Antiobesity; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitumor (Stomach); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Bronchoprotectant; Cancer-Preventive; Candidistat; Chemopreventive; Cholesterolytic; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant; Expectorant; FLavor; Fungiphilic; Fungistat; GST-Inducer; Herbicide IC50=45 uM; Histaminic; Immunomodulator; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor; Irritant; Lipolytic; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml; NO-Genic; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet); Ozone-Scavenger; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic; Pesticide; Photosensitizer; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg; Transdermal

LINALOL Plant 15 - 30 ppm

No activity reported.

LINALOL-ACETATE Plant 10 - 820 ppm

No activity reported.

LINALOL-ISOVALERATE Plant 130 - 260 ppm

No activity reported.

MAGNESIUM Plant 5,500 ppm;

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic; Antianginal; Antianorectic; Antianxiety; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic; AntiCFS; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant; Anticoronary 400 mg/day; Antidepressant; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day; Antienterotic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic; Antiglaucomic; Antihyperkinetic; Antihypertensive; Antihypoglycemic; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilithic; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man; Antimitral-valve-prolapse; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day; Antispasmodic; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day; Antistress 500-750 mg/day; Antistroke 400 mg/day; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective; CNS-Depressant; Diuretic; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Plant 83 ppm;

Antialcoholic; Antianemic; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day; Antidiscotic; Antidyskinetic; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic; Antioxidant; AntiPMS; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day; Hypoglycemic

MENTHENE Plant 280 - 560 ppm

No activity reported.

MENTHOFURAN Plant 1 - 160 ppm

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=441 uM gpg (weak activity); Hepatotoxic; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide; Pulmonotoxic


No activity reported.

MENTHOL Plant 1 - 3,780 ppm

Allergenic; Analgesic; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM; Antiaggregant IC50=750; Antiallergic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic; Antidandruff; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antihalitosic; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic; Antipruritic; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic; Antisalmonella; Antiseptic 4 x phenol; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Antitartar; Antivaginitic; Antivulvitic; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman; Bronchomucolytic; Bronchomucotropic; Bronchorrheic; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Carminative; Choleretic; Ciliotoxic; CNS-Depressant; CNS-Stimulant; Congestant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Decongestant? 11 mg/man; Dermatitigenic; Diaphoretic; Enterorelaxant; Expectorant; Gastrosedative; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Neurodepressant; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat; Nociceptive; Perfumery; Pesticide; Refrigerant; Rubefacient; Termiticide; Transdermal; Vibriocide


No activity reported.

MENTHONE Plant 10 - 6,160 ppm 50 - 6,160 ppm

Acaricide; Allelopathic; Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM; Antiaggregant IC50=750; Antiallergic; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml; Antihistaminic; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml; Cerebrotoxic orl man; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l; FLavor FEMA 5-50; Fungicide; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l; Larvicide; Mutagenic; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Psychoactive; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml

MYRCENE Plant 27 - 600 ppm

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antibacterial; Anticonvulsant; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus 20-40 mg/kg scu mus; Antioxidant; Antispasmodic; Chemopreventive; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9; Fungicide; Hypothermic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide

MYRISTIC-ACID Essential Oil:

Antioxidant IC71=60; Cancer-Preventive; Cosmetic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide


No activity reported.

NEOISOMENTHOL Plant 30 - 1,160 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

NEOMENTHOL Plant 1 - 3,880 ppm

Antispasmodic ED50=0.033 mg/ml; Perfumery


Feliphile; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Sedative

NEROL Plant 10 - 20 ppm

Antibacterial; Antihelicobacter; Antiseptic; Antiulcer; Estrogenic; FLavor FEMA 1-20; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide ED100=300 ug/ml

O-CRESOL Essential Oil:

Allelochemic IC50=0.36 mM; Antimutagenic; Antiseptic; Cancer-Preventive; Pesticide; Rodenticide LD 50=620 cut rat

OCIMENE Plant 25 - 50 ppm

Insecticide; Perfumery

OCT-1-EN-3-OL Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCT-3-EN-1-OL Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-OL Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTAN-1-OL-ACETATE Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-OL Plant 20 - 440 ppm

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-OL-ACETATE Plant 12 - 160 ppm

No activity reported.

OCTAN-3-ONE Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTEN-1-OL Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTOIC-ACID Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

OCTYLIC-ACID Essential Oil:

No activity reported.

P-CRESOL Essential Oil:

Allelochemic IC50=1.13 mM; Antimutagenic; Antiseptic; Cancer-Preventive; FLavor FEMA <1; Parasiticide; Pesticide; Rodenticide LD50=1,100 cut rat

P-CYMENE Plant 3 - 610 ppm

Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM; Antibacillary; Antibacterial; Antiflu; Antirheumatalgic; Antiviral; FLavor FEMA 12-250; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=50 uM; Insectifuge; Irritant; Laxative; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml

P-CYMOL Plant 30 - 60 ppm

No activity reported.

P-MENTHA-1,4(8)-DIENE Plant:

No activity reported.

P-MENTHANE Plant 40 - 80 ppm

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Essential Oil:

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antifibrinolytic; Antioxidant IC40=60; FLavor FEMA 1; Hemolytic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide; Pesticide; Propecic; Soap

PHENOL Essential Oil:

Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antibacterial; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihydrocoele; Antiincontinence; AntiMS; Antionychogryphotic; Antiotitic; Antioxidant; Antiprostatitic; Antipyruvetic; Antiseptic; Antisinusitic; Antispastic; Antiviral; Antiwrinkle; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; CNS-Depressant; Emetic; Fungicide; Hemolytic 5,400 ppm; Pesticide; Rodenticide LD50=1,040 cut rat; Vasodilator

PHOSPHORUS Plant 2,520 ppm;

Antiosteoporotic; Anxiolytic; Immunostimulant; Osteogenic

PIPERITENOL Plant 100 - 200 ppm

No activity reported.

PIPERITENONE Plant 30 - 4,800 ppm

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=110 ug/ml; Perfumery; Toxic 10,000/man

PIPERITOL Plant 10 - 20 ppm

No activity reported.

PIPERITOL-ACETATE Plant 100 - 200 ppm

No activity reported.

PIPERITONE Plant 9 - 11,000 ppm

Antiasthmatic; FLavor FEMA 1-2; Herbicide IC50=30 mM IC50=75 uM; Insectifuge (> DEET); Perfumery; Pesticide

PIPERTENONE Plant 33 - 66 ppm

No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Plant 10,500 - 15,310 ppm

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker; Antiarrhythmic; Antidepressant; Antifatigue; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic; Antistroke; Anxiolytic; Beta-Blocker; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Vasodilator

PROTEIN Plant 100,000 - 112,000 ppm Seed 100,000 - 246,000 ppm

No activity reported.

PULEGOL Plant 400 - 800 ppm

No activity reported.

PULEGONE Plant 520 - 18,800 ppm

AChE-Inhibitor; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM IC50=136 ug/ml; Antialzheimeran?; Antibacterial; Anticholinesterase; Antihistaminic; Antipyretic; Avifuge; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Cerebrotoxic orl man; Encephalopathic 80 mg/kg orl rat; FLavor FEMA 5-30; Fungicide; Glutathionalytic; Hallucinogenic; Hepatotoxic; Herbicide IC50=1.5 uM; Insecticide; Insectifuge; Nephrotoxic; Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Pulifuge; Pulmonotoxic; Sedative


No activity reported.

ROSMARINIC-ACID Plant 30,000 ppm;

ABeta-Inhibitor; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiaggregant; Antiallergic; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM; Antibacterial; Anticoagulant; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antidepressant; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=20 ug/ml; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic; Antioxidant 10 uM EC50=2.7 ug/ml; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM; Antiplaque; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l; Antipulmonotic; Antiradicular; Antishock; Antithyreotropic; Antithyroid; Antiuremic; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic; Apoptotic; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt; Cancer-Preventive; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; Neuroprotective; Pesticide; Radioprotective

SABINENE Plant 8 - 140 ppm

Antibacterial; Antihelicobacter; Antiseptic; Antiulcer; Perfumery


Allelochemic IC50=0.51 mM; FLavor FEMA 0.5-20; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sprout-Inhibitor


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM; Analgesic; Antiarthritic; Antibacterial; Antidandruff; Antidermatotic; Antieczemic; Antiichthyosic; Antiinflammatory; Antineuralgic; Antioncychomycotic; Antioxidant; Antiperiodic; Antipodagric; Antipsoriac; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitumor; Antitympanitic; Cancer-Preventive; Comedolytic; COX-2-Inhibitor; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Dermatitigenic; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml; Hypoglycemic; Insectifuge; Keratolytic; Pesticide; Thermogenic 130 ppm; Tineacide; Ulcerogenic


No activity reported.

SELENIUM Plant 25 ppm;

Analgesic 200 ug/day; Anorexic; Antiacne; Antiaggregant; Antiangiogenic 2 uM 230 ug/kg orl rat; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticataract 400 ug/day; Anticirrhotic; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day; Anticoronary; Antidandruff; Antidepressant; Antidote (Mercury); Antifibrotic 400 ug; Antigout 200 ug; AntiHIV; Antikeshan; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus; Antileukotriene; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day; AntiNF-kB; Antiosteoarthritic; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day; Antiproliferant 2 uM; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antirheumatic; Antisyndrome-X; Antitumor; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus 150 ug/kg diet rat 230 ug/kg orl rat 333.6 ug/day; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet; Antitumor (Prostate); Antiulcerogenic; Anxiolytic; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM; Apoptotic; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant; Fungicide; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor; Prostaglandin-Sparer; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM; VEGF-Inhibitor

SILICON Plant 182 ppm;

Antiarteriosclerotic; Antionychyotic; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective

SODIUM Plant 2,790 - 5,410 ppm


TANNIN Plant 40,000 ppm;

Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticariogenic; Antidiarrheic; Antidysenteric; Antihepatotoxic; AntiHIV; Antihypertensive; Antilipolytic; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin IC50=1.44 ug/ml; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin 500 mg/kg/day orl mus; Antirenitic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Chelator; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor; Hepatoprotective; Immunosuppressant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; MAO-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Psychotropic; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor

TERPINENOL Plant 10 - 20 ppm

No activity reported.

TERPINOLENE Plant 1 - 90 ppm

Allelochemic; Antifeedant; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant; Deodorant; FLavor FEMA 15-60; Fungicide; Perfumery; Pesticide

THUJONE Plant 10 - 20 ppm

Abortifacient; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.127 mg/ml; Cerebrodepressant; Convulsant 40 mg/kg; Counterirritant; Emmenagogue; Epileptigenic; Hallucinogenic; Herbicide IC50=22 mM; Neurotoxic; Perfumery; Pesticide; Respirainhibitor; Toxic


Acaricide; Allergenic; Analgesic; Ancylostomicide; Anesthetic; Ankylostomacide; Anthelmintic; Antiacne; Antiaggregant IC50=0.75; Antialzheimeran?; Antiarthritic; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM; Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml; Antibronchitic; Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml; Anticholinesterase; Antihalitosic; Antiherpetic; Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin); Antilepric; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l; Antineuritic; Antioxidant 100 ppm; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM; Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml; Antiradicular EC=60; Antirheumatic; Antisalmonella; Antiseptic 20 x phenol; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml; Antitrichinosic 5%; Antitussive; Ataxigenic; Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin); Carminative; Counterirritant; Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin); Dentifrice; Deodorant; Dermatitigenic; Enterorelaxant; Enterotoxic; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 2-100; Fungicide; Gastroirritant; Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml; Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml; Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly LC50=36-49 mg/l; Insectifuge; Irritant; Larvicide 10 ppm 58 ppm LC50=36-49 mg/l; Molluscicide; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Sprout-Inhibitor; Tracheorelaxant; Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml; Urinary-Antiseptic; Varroacide; Vermicide

TIN Plant 24 ppm;

Antiacne; Antibacterial; Pesticide; Taenicide

TRANS-BETA-OCIMENE Plant 1 - 8 ppm

No activity reported.

TRANS-ISOPULEGONE Plant 70 - 320 ppm

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

WATER Plant 912,000 ppm;

No activity reported.

ZINC Plant 56 ppm;

ACE-Inhibitor; Analgesic; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day; Antiangiogenic; Antianorexic; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day; Anticataract 30 mg/day; Anticoeliac; Anticold 50 mg; Anticolitic; Anticoronary 30 mg/day; AntiCrohn's; Antidandruff; Antidementia; Antidiabetic; Antidote (Cadmium); Antidysgeuzic; Antieczemic 150 mg/day; Antiencephalopathic; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day; Antifibrotic 30 mg; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man; Antihangover 15 mg; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV; Antiimpotence; Antiinfective 50 mg/day; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day; Antiinsomniac; Antilepric; Antileukonychic; Antilymphomic; Antimaculitic; Antimetastatic; Antineuropathic; Antinyctalopic; Antiobesity 30 mg/day; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic; Antiplaque; Antiprolactin; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic 50 mg/day; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man 88 mg/rat/day/15 days; Antiviral?; Astringent; Collagenic; Copper-Antagonist; Deodorant; Detoxicant (Alcohol); Ergogenic; Hypotensive 30 mg/day; Immunomodulator; Immunostimulant; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day; Mucogenic; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Spermigenic 60 mg/day; Testosteronigenic; Trichomonicide; Vulnerary

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps