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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) -- Water Mint



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) -- Water Mint


(+)-ISOMENTHONE Leaf 1,230 - 3,485 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

(+)-PULEGONE Leaf 510 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM JAF45:677 IC50=136 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Irritant ZEB DUKE1992B ; Perfumery DUKE1992B

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Allergenic JBH ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.06 ppm X11714299 IC50=7.25 uM X11714299 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antihistaminic JBH ; Antimalarial IC50=4.2-12.6 ug/ml PR17:123 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=2.06 ppm X11714299 IC50=7.25 uM X11714299 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Plasmodicide IC50=4.2-12.6 ug/ml PR17:123 ; Protisticide PR17:123 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223


No activity reported.


Allergenic M&R722 ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Narcotic M29

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 18 - 68 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340


11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; AntiADD LIB ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.57 ppm X11714299 IC50=9.52 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic 4 uM; Antiarrhythmic PT4:118 ; Antibacterial 452 ; Anticancer (Lung) X15947208 ; Anticomplementary MSC'96 ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antiherpetic 20-54 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=10-35 uM; AntiHIV IC50=143 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 IC72=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory = indomethacin IC~65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antileukemic 20-50 uM BO2 ; Antimelanomic 1-50 uM; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.55 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.5 x Vit. E IC28.5=62.5 ug/ml JAF50:3150 ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiproliferant 1-50 uM IC50=155 uM JE91:65.2004 ; Antispasmodic EC50=1-5 uM; Antistress 10 mg/kg; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 1-50 uM; Antitumor (Breast) BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Skin) MSC'96 ; Antiviral 20-54 ug/ml; Anxiolytic 10 mg/kg; Apoptotic 12-60 uM BO2 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC65=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor IC50=~40 uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist? BBA1115:69 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic FTS:1986 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC65=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM IC50=<15 uM X10506109 IC>65=1,000 uM HHM7:7 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic 1-50 uM BO2 IC50=9.5 uM JE91:65.2004 IC88=10 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Differentiator IC40=40 uM BO2 MIC=30 uM BO2 ; Diuretic JBH ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic 16% genistein BO2 EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=1 uM X10923837 ; HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor X15947208 ; Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor IC50+=50-250 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive JBH ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X12909272 ; MAO-Inhibitor PH2 ; MAPK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant JBH ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15322261 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Nodulation-Signal JBH ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; P21-Inducer 10-70 uM BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PKC-Inhibitor IC50=10 uM MSC'96 ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Progestational X10989984 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=10-40 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 20 uM CLE120:213 ; Radioprotective PH2 ; Sedative 30-100 mg/kg PM61:213 ; Sunscreen MSC'96 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.27 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 50 ug/ml JB118:312 IC28=18 uM BO2 IC45=180 uM BO2 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor IC50=2-7 uM; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 0.36 uM PM69:1125


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Leaf 300 - 850 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-PINENE Leaf 15 - 315 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

CARVONE Leaf 510 - 1,785 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R683 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4-1.8 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiproliferative JNP65:953 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol W&W ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JNP65:953 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 80-3,000 ARC ; Fungistat JNP65:953 ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermicide DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CINEOLE Leaf 63 - 1,904 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Leaf 3,000 - 8,500 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Acaricide X10826162 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisyncopic DUKE1992B ; Astringent M11 ; Corrosive ARC ; Counterirritant M11 ; FLavor FEMA 500-2,500 ARC ; Fungistat JBH ; Fungitoxic JBH ; Irritant M&R670 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Preservative ARC ; Toxic JBH


Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Antibacterial MIC=500 ug/ml; Antifeedant JBH ; Antilipolytic PM59:508 ; Antiviral JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungistat PC29(4):1103 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:253 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


No activity reported.

ISOMENTHONE Leaf 30 - 170 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.6 mM JAF45:677 ; Antioxidant X12802721 ; Antiradicular X12802721

LIMONENE Leaf 114 - 714 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Leaf 1,080 - 3,060 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Anesthetic 0.01-1 ug/ml; Antioxidant 400 ppm SPI:282 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.21 mg/ml FT59:465 ; FLavor FEMA 2-15 ARC ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


No activity reported.

MENTHOFURAN Leaf 30 - 7,582 ppm DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=441 uM gpg (weak activity) K29404 ; Hepatotoxic LRN-JAN92 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pulmonotoxic AEH

MENTHOL Leaf 3,570 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic MAR ; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiasthmatic MAB ; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiinflammatory MAR ; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic JPP46:16 ; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180 ; Antirheumatic MAR ; Antisalmonella X12083863 ; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Antivaginitic FEL ; Antivulvitic FEL ; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR ; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200 ; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16 ; Bronchorrheic ACM:200 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant KCH ; Congestant JPP46:16 ; Convulsant RJH ; Counterirritant DUKE1992B ; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652 ; Dermatitigenic M&R654 ; Diaphoretic KCH ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JPP46:16 ; Gastrosedative M11 ; Irritant JPP46:16 ; Myorelaxant M29 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurodepressant JPP46:16 ; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16 ; Nociceptive JPP46:16 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Refrigerant JPP46:16 ; Rubefacient DUKE1992B ; Termiticide 382 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

MENTHONE Leaf 23 - 212 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; Allelopathic X12083883 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; FLavor FEMA 5-50 ARC ; Fungicide X12083883 ; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Mutagenic AEHD1:176 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive X12083883 ; Sedative JE25:165 ; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml FT67:279

MENTHYL-ACETATE Leaf 1,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic ED50=0.105 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Perfumery M11


Sedative M11


ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Antispasmodic ED50=0.033 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Perfumery ARC

OCTAN-3-OL Leaf 3 - 162 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


No activity reported.

P-CYMOL Leaf 6 - 51 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=110 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Perfumery ARC ; Toxic 10,000/man ARC


Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-2 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 IC50=75 uM TOX ; Insectifuge (> DEET) JNP56:935 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


No activity reported.

PULEGONE Leaf 54 - 153 ppm DUKE1992A

AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=0.9 mM JAF45:677 IC50=136 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antibacterial PM57:347 ; Anticholinesterase 453 ; Antihistaminic JPP42:295 ; Antipyretic JE25:165.1989 ; Avifuge DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PM57:347 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Encephalopathic 80 mg/kg orl rat LRN-JAN92 ; FLavor FEMA 5-30 ARC ; Fungicide PM57:347 ; Glutathionalytic LRN-JAN92 ; Hallucinogenic RJH ; Hepatotoxic PM56(2):226 ; Herbicide IC50=1.5 uM TOX ; Insecticide 453 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Nephrotoxic RJH ; Neurotoxic; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pulifuge DUKE1992B ; Pulmonotoxic; Sedative JE25:165.1989

ROSMARINIC-ACID Plant 27,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

ABeta-Inhibitor X16495207 ; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor CPB37:1287 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor X16249088 ; Antiaggregant LAF ; Antiallergic BPB24:1206 ; Antialzheimeran X16524383 ; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl IJI10:729 ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat DUKE1992B ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat DUKE1992B ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial PM55:663 ; Anticoagulant LAF ; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antidepressant X11917505 ; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims IJI10:729 ; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l IJI10:729 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml V&D EC50=20 ug/ml POP:270 ; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihyperthyroid X6724503 ; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antilipoperoxidant PM56:173 ; Antimutagenic X16536576 ; Antinephritic JNP59:843 ; Antioxidant 10 uM PHM7:7 EC50=2.7 ug/ml FT62:170 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque X16524383 ; Antiproliferant X11270716 ; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l HH2 ; Antipulmonotic VET94 ; Antiradicular PM56:173 ; Antishock IJI10:735 ; Antithyreotropic DUKE1992B ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antiuremic JNP59:843 ; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X11917505 ; Apoptotic X16534555 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml POP:270 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Immunomodulator JAF50:5878 ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF46:4545 ; Neuroprotective X16495207 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective X16536576

TANNIN Leaf 74,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


No activity reported.

VIRIDIFLOROL Leaf 36 - 102 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=25 ug/ml JAF46:3434

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps






382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:253: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 253.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH: De Smet, P.A.G.M., Keller, K., Hansel, R. and Chandler, R.F., eds. 1993. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs 2. Springr-Verlag, Berlin. 348pp.

AEHD1:176: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBA1115:69: Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1115: 69, 1991.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB24:1206: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CPB37:1287: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT62:170: Parveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FTS:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

IJI10:729: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.

IJI10:735: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:4545: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5878: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR4:24: J. Aromatherapy 4: 24.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JB118:312: Azuma, Y., Onishi, Y., Sato, Y., Kizaki, H. 1995. Effects of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors With Different Modes of Action on Topoisomerase Activity and Death of IL-2-Dependent CTLL-2-Cells. J Biochemistry, 118: 312-318.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE25:165: Ortiz de Urbina, A.V., Martin*, M.L., Montero, M.J., Moran, A., and San Roman, L. 1988. Sedating and Antipyretic Activity of the Essential Oil of Calamintha sylvatica subsp. Ascendens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 25: 165-171, 1989.

JE25:165.1989: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE91:65.2004: Jim Duke's personal files

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP56:935: Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:843: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:953: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:295: Ortiz De Urbina, A.V., Martin, M.L., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., Sevilla, M.A., San Roman, L. 1989. Antihistaminic activity of pulegone on the guinea-pig ileum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 295-296, 1990.

JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

K29404: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LIB: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JAN92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-92.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R654: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R670: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R683: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MSC'96: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC29(4):1103: Weidenborner, M., Hindorf, H., Jha, H.C., and Tsotsonos, P. 1989. Antifungal Activity of Flavonoids Against Storage Fungi of the Genus Aspergillus. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1103-1105.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM55:663: Planta Medica, 55: 663.

PM56(2):226: Lewis, E.J. and Friedrich, E.C. 1989. The Essential Oil of Poliomintha incana. Planta Medica 56(2): 224-226, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:347: Economou, D., and Nahrstedt, A. 1991. Chemical, Physiological, and Toxicological Aspects of the Essential Oil of Some Species of the Genus Bystropogon*. Planta Medica, 57: 347, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM59:508: Kuppusamy, U.R., and Das, N.P. 1993. Antilipolytic Action of Hesperetin in Rat Adipocytes. Planta Medica, 59: 508.

PM61:213: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR17:123: Jim Duke's personal files

PT4:118: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SPI:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TR42:511: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

VET94: Tyler, V.E.. 1994.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

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X9242356: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace