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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lippia graveolens HBK (Verbenaceae) – Mexican Oregano



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Lippia graveolens HBK (Verbenaceae) – Mexican Oregano



Allergenic M&R240 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC 170-290 PMP25:184 MIC=39-625 450 ; Anticholinesterase? LGR ; Antidiuretic LRN-MAR92 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=4 uM DUKE1992B ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antioxidant JEO5:153 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=5.53 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiprostaglandin DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 600 x thymol JEO5:153 ; Antiseptic 1.5 x phenol; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Antitussive CAN ; Candidicide 100-150 ug/ml JE58:143 MIC<0.1 ug/ml JAN47(4) ; Carminative LAF ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor =indomethacin DFN:161 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 10-125 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

LAPACHENOLE Root 210 ppm; DUKE1992A Shoot 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NARINGENIN Root 85 ppm; DUKE1992A Shoot 70 ppm; DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 1 ug/ml PM56(3):254 100 uM JBC8:211 IC25=1 uM PC23:1885 IC78=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase X14739537 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antialzheimeran JAF52:1520 ; Antiamnesic JAF52:1520 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JAF52:1520 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic X12224631 ; Antifibrotic X14709902 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic EMP5:197 ; AntiHIV IC35=200 ug/ml JNP60(9):884 ; Antiinflammatory 20 ppm JNP39:426 ; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antimutagenic ID50=50-100 nM PCF:13 ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antiperoxidative JBH ; Antiradicular JAF47:397 ; Antisindhis IC50=15 ug/ml X12520185 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Antistaphylococcic X10857921 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer FT5:1990 ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC45=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JBH ; Embryotoxic X14667474 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l; Fungicide 2.5 mM; Fungistat PC29(4):1103 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=12 uM X11714299 IC50=3.37 ppm X11714299 ; Neuroprotective JAF52:1520 ; P450-Inhibitor X9178939 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Serotonin-Inhibitor JBH ; Teratogenic X14667474 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=14.41 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227

PINOCEMBRIN Root 95 ppm; DUKE1992A Shoot 105 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anesthetic PC29(5):1667 ; Antibacterial IC 3 ug/ml JBH ; Antileukemic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Artemicide LC50=12 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Candidicide IC 0.1-3 mg/ml JBH ; Cytotoxic ED50=21 DUKE1992B ; Fungicide PMP24:117 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Acaricide X10826162 ; Allergenic M&R366 ; Analgesic MAD ; Ancylostomicide MAD ; Anesthetic MAD ; Ankylostomacide MAD ; Anthelmintic 411 ; Antiacne NIG ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.75 TRA42:511 ; Antialzheimeran? LGR ; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial MIC=50-400 ug/ml; Antibronchitic MAD ; Anticariogenic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Anticholinesterase LGR ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiherpetic MAR ; Antiinflammatory (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Antilepric MAD ; Antimelanomic IC50=120 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant 100 ppm MAR ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=4 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antiplaque MIC=39-625 ug/ml 451 ; Antiradicular EC=60 JEO5:153 ; Antirheumatic 411 ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antiseptic 20 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Antitrichinosic 5% MAD ; Antitussive IWU ; Ataxigenic ZEB ; Candidicide 100 ug/ml (>Nystatin) JE58:143 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Counterirritant NIG ; Culicide LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor (=indomethacin) DFN:161 ; Dentifrice ARC ; Deodorant MAR ; Dermatitigenic M&R366 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Enterotoxic WIC ; Expectorant LAF ; FLavor FEMA 2-100 ARC ; Fungicide M11 ; Gastroirritant M29 ; Gram(+)icide MIC=200-400 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Gram(-)icide MIC=50-200 ug/ml JNP59:823 ; Insecticide 0.22 uM/fly JAF50:4576 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Insectifuge X10701181 ; Irritant LAF ; Larvicide 10 ppm 454 58 ppm X10701181 LC50=36-49 mg/l X11997977 ; Molluscicide PR13:649 ; Myorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Nematicide MLC=0.1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Sprout-Inhibitor PER.COM.SFV ; Tracheorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=25 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Urinary-Antiseptic 411 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vermicide MAD

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Mexican oregano



411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

451: Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21

454: Berenbaum, M. R., The natives knew, Chemtech, (May), 1990, 275-279.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:161: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP5:197: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 197.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:1520: Jim Duke's personal files

JAN47(4): Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE58:143: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO5:153: Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:426: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LGR: L. Gracza (1985) as cited by Buchbauer re antiacetylcholinesterase.

LRN-MAR92: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Mar-92.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R240: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R366: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC29(4):1103: Weidenborner, M., Hindorf, H., Jha, H.C., and Tsotsonos, P. 1989. Antifungal Activity of Flavonoids Against Storage Fungi of the Genus Aspergillus. Phytochemistry. 29(4): 1103-1105.

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PCF:13: Maga, J.A. Contribution of Phenolic Compounds to Smoke Flavor. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.13.

PER.COM.SFV: Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PM56(3):254: Aida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PMP24:117: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP25:184: Chalchat, J.C. et Garry, R.P.*, Bastide, P., Fabre, F. et Malhuret, R. Correlation Composition Chimique/Activite Antimicrobienne: V - Contribution a la Comparaison de 2 Methodes de Determination Des Cmi. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 25: 184-193.

PR13:649: Jim Duke's personal files

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TRA42:511: Tramil, 42: 511.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X10701181: Jim Duke's personal files

X10826162: Jim Duke's personal files

X10857921: Jim Duke's personal files

X11307877: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11997977: Jim Duke's personal files

X12224631: Jim Duke's personal files

X12520185: Jim Duke's personal files

X14646351: Jim Duke's personal files

X14667474: Jim Duke's personal files

X14709902: Jim Duke's personal files

X14739537: Jim Duke's personal files

X9178939: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace