Treatment of anabolic steroid abuse
Type of Spiritual Experience
Ibogaine is being used to treat people with anabolic steroid misuse and abuse.
These three papers together show why this works.
Anabolic steroids have caused serotonin imbalance along with the normal signs of imbalance - increased aggression and antisocial behaviour
A description of the experience
Eur Addict Res. 2015 Jun 19;21(6):321-326. [Epub ahead of print] Anti-Social Behaviors Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use among Male Adolescents. Hallgren M1, Pope HG Jr, Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Lundin A, Källmén H.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been linked to a range of problematic behaviors, but AAS use is still sometimes portrayed as more benign than other forms of classical drug abuse. To address this issue, we compared the prevalence of anti-social behaviors among adolescent AAS users, non-AAS illicit drug users, and drug non-users. We examined 3 waves (2004, 2008, and 2012) of self-reported cross-sectional data from a secondary school survey conducted in Stockholm, Sweden (total n = 19,773; response percentage, 79.6%). Across all survey years, the risk ratios for virtually all measured anti-social behaviors were significantly higher among AAS users compared to non-AAS illicit drug users and to drug non-users. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Genes Brain Behav. 2009 Mar;8(2):161-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2008.00458.x. Anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment induces behavioral disinhibition and downregulation of serotonin receptor messenger RNA in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of male mice. Ambar G1, Chiavegatto S.
Nandrolone is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that is highly abused by individuals seeking enhanced physical strength or body appearance. Supraphysiological doses of this synthetic testosterone derivative have been associated with many physical and psychiatric adverse effects, particularly episodes of impulsiveness and overt aggressive behavior. As the neural mechanisms underlying AAS-induced behavioral disinhibition are unknown, we investigated the status of serotonergic system-related transcripts in several brain areas of mice receiving prolonged nandrolone administration. Male C57BL/6J mice received 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate subcutaneously once daily for 28 days, and different sets of animals were used to investigate motor-related and emotion-related behaviors or 5-HT-related messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AAS-injected mice had increased body weight, were more active and displayed anxious-like behaviors in novel environments. They exhibited reduced immobility in the forced swim test, a higher probability of being aggressive and more readily attacked opponents. AAS treatment substantially reduced mRNA levels of most investigated postsynaptic 5-HT receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly,the 5-HT(1B) mRNA level was further reduced in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. There was no alteration of 5-HT system transcript levels in the midbrain. In conclusion,high doses of AAS nandrolone in male mice recapitulate the behavioral disinhibition observed in abusers. Furthermore, these high doses downregulate 5-HT receptor mRNA levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our combined findings suggest these areas as critical sites for AAS-induced effects and a possible role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor in the observed behavioral disinhibition.
Brain Res Bull. 1997;42(3):161-8.
Ibogaine and cocaine abuse: pharmacological interactions at dopamine and serotonin receptors.
Sershen H1, Hashim A, Lajtha A.
Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid that has been of interest in recent years due to its putative efficacy in the treatment of drug dependence. For the most part, animal data have shown attenuation of some of the effects of stimulant drugs, for example, motor stimulation and self-administration. The mechanism of this inhibition of drug-induced behavior seems to suggest the action of the dopamine, serotonin, NMDA, kappa, and/or sigma receptor sites, as indicated by the affinity of ibogaine to receptor selective ligands in binding competition studies. However, affinity for receptors does not in itself indicate their involvement. In vitro perfusion studies have proven a useful model to study the effect of ibogaine on neurotransmitter systems and the functional effects of such interactions. This review summarizes these data and the support of multiple effects of ibogaine, and the potential importance of its action on serotonergic modulation of dopamine release.