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North, Stephen - Modifications of the physical properties of crystals, the formation of dislocation loops



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The strains which are associated with a paranormal metal-bending event are in general not externally applied; we have seen that there are dynamic strain pulses at the metal, and therefore almost certainly dynamic stress pulses; these would probably be associated with the formation of dislocation loops such as are found in the anomalous hardening events. Dr Bouvaist and I decided to perform experiments jointly to see whether there was a quantitative correlation between paranormal dynamic strain pulses and dislocation loops induced in a normal crystal.

We conducted the first experiment with a crystal of AU4SG (US nomenclature 2014), which was exposed to the action of Stephen North, with six strain gauges attached. In three 90-minute sessions a profusion of paranormal signals was recorded, and I summed the total of the signal strengths at each strain gauge.

It was possible that the dislocation densities at these six points would correlate with these summed totals. But unfortunately the background of dislocations in this crystal was very high, due to precipitation during cooling, and significant differences in dislocation density could not be observed after exposure. There was also a high level of surface porosity. The crystal was of a very tough alloy, so perhaps we aimed too high in this initial experiment.

A soft pure aluminium crystal with very few residual dislocations was then exposed; no fewer than ten permanent deformations were recorded and a high density of dislocation loops was observed; since these could have been associated with the bends, analysis for correlation was not attempted. Silicon crystals were then exposed, but many cleavages occurred.

Despite our initial failure to quantify the correlation of dynamic strains with dislocation densities, it still seems that one primary mechanism of paranormal metal-bending is the formation of dislocation loops within the metal crystal. Metal-bending has often been found to be accompanied by dynamic strain pulses; and the dynamic strain pulses are often accompanied by dislocations.


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North, Stephen

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