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Observations placeholder

Levaquin and Levofloxacin



Type of Spiritual Experience


Number of hallucinations: 405


A description of the experience

Levofloxacin   is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class.  It is sold under various brand names, such as Levaquin   and Tavanic.

On Jan, 07, 2017 6,421 people reported to have side effects when taking Levofloxacin.  Among them, 45 people (0.7%) have Hallucination

On Dec, 31, 2016 36,669 people reported to have side effects when taking Levaquin.  Among them, 360 people (0.98%) have Hallucination

It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It functions by inhibiting cell division.  The fluoroquinolones interfere with DNA replication by inhibiting an enzyme complex called DNA gyrase. This can also affect mammalian cell replication, some congeners of this drug family are toxic to cultured mammalian cells.  Levofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion. However, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the liver and the intestine.

Levofloxin should only be  used to treat severe or life-threatening bacterial infections or bacterial infections that have failed to respond to other antibiotic classes. Levofloxacin should be principally used for adults excluding any pregnant or nursing women, to treat infections that include: severe respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, endocarditis, meningitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and traveler's diarrhea.  It is supposed to be about twice as potent as ofloxacin against mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria, including mycobacterium avium complex.  Levofloxacin is now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases by some experts due to bacterial resistance.

Despite the very restricted market that Levofloxacin appears to be targeted at, Levaquin has generated billions of dollars in revenue. In 2007 alone, Levaquin accounted for 6.5% of Johnson and Johnson's total revenue, generating $1.6 billion, an 8% increase over the previous year. Ranking 37th within the top 200 prescribed drugs in the United States for 2007, and ranked 19th in world sales in 2007, total sales for Levaquin were in excess of 1.6 billion dollars. Levaquin was the most prescribed fluoroquinolone drug in the world for 2007.  Which should beg the question – why?  Something is going wrong with the prescribing…..

Adherence to treatment guidelines for acute diarrhoea in children up to 12 years in Ujjain, India--a cross-sectional prescription analysis - Pathak D, Pathak A, Marrone G, Diwan V, Lundborg CS; Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

 BACKGROUND:  Diarrhoea accounts for 20% of all paediatric deaths in India. Despite WHO recommendations and IAP (Indian Academy of Paediatrics) and Government of India treatment guidelines, few children suffering from acute diarrhoea in India receive low osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc from health care providers. The aim of this study was to analyse practitioners' prescriptions for acute diarrhoea for adherence to treatment guidelines and further to determine the factors affecting prescribing for diarrhoea in Ujjain, India.

METHODS:  This cross-sectional study was conducted in pharmacies and major hospitals of Ujjain, India. We included prescriptions from all practitioners, including those from modern medicine, Ayurveda, Homeopathy as well as informal health-care providers (IHPs). The data collection instrument was designed to include all the possible medications that are given for an episode of acute diarrhoea to children up to 12 years of age. Pharmacy assistants and resident medical officers transferred the information regarding the current diarrhoeal episode and the treatment given from the prescriptions and inpatient case sheets, respectively, to the data collection instrument.

RESULTS:  Information was collected from 843 diarrhoea prescriptions. We found only 6 prescriptions having the recommended treatment that is ORS along with Zinc, with no additional probiotics, antibiotics, racecadotril or antiemetics (except Domperidone for vomiting). ORS alone was prescribed in 58% of the prescriptions; while ORS with zinc was prescribed in 22% of prescriptions, however these also contained other drugs not included in the guidelines.

Antibiotics were prescribed in 71% of prescriptions. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed and often in illogical fixed-dose combinations. One such illogical combination, ofloxacin with ornidazole, was the most frequent oral antibiotic prescribed (22% of antibiotics prescribed). Practitioners from alternate system of medicine and IHPs are significantly less likely (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.46, P = 0.003) to prescribe ORS and zinc than pediatricians. Practitioners from 'free' hospitals are more likely to prescribe ORS and zinc (OR 4.94, 95% CI 2.45-9.96, P < 0.001) and less likely to prescribe antibiotics (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.01-0-04, P < 0.001) compared to practitioners from 'charitable' hospitals. Accompanying symptoms like the presence of fever, pain, blood in the stool and vomiting significantly increased antibiotic prescribing.

CONCLUSION  This study demonstrated low adherence to standard treatment guidelines for management of acute diarrhoea in children under 12 years in Ujjain, India. Key public health concerns were the low use of zinc and the high use of antibiotics, found in prescriptions from both specialist paediatricians as well as practitioners from alternate systems of medicine and informal health-care providers. To improve case management of acute diarrhoea, continuing professional development programme targeting the practitioners of all systems of medicine is necessary.

Levofloxacin interacts with a number of other drugs, as well as a number of herbal and natural supplements. Such interactions increase the risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias, anticoagulation, the formation of non-absorbable complexes, as well as increasing the risk of toxicity. For example, coadministration may dangerously increase warfarin (Coumadin) activity. They may also interact with the GABA A receptor and cause neurological symptoms; this effect is augmented by certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.   Quercetin,  a kind of flavonoid, occasionally used as a dietary supplement, may interact with fluoroquinolones.  Some foods such as garlic and apples contain high levels of quercetin.  The fluoroquinolones have also been shown to interfere with the metabolism of caffeine. The interference with the metabolism of caffeine may lead to the reduced clearance of caffeine and a prolongation of its serum half-life, resulting in a caffeine overdose.

Ciprofloxacin has been shown to interact with thyroid medications (levothyroxine) resulting in unexplained hypothyroidism. As such it is possible that levofloxacin may interact with thyroid medications as well.

It is also associated with a number of serious and life-threatening adverse reactions, heart problems, muscle wasting, seizures,  fatal hypoglycemia, kidney damage, anaphylactoid reactions and myasthenia crisis, acute pancreatitis,temporary as well as permanent loss of vision, irreversible double vision, impaired color vision, exanthema, abdominal pain, malaise, drug fever, dysaesthesia and eosinophilia, as well as spontaneous tendon ruptures and irreversible peripheral neuropathy. Such reactions may manifest long after therapy had been completed and in severe cases may result in life-long disabilities. Hepatoxicity has also been reported with the use of levofloxacin. As of 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has added two Black box warnings for this drug.

Serious adverse events occur more commonly with fluoroquinolones than with any other antibiotic drug classes.

Some groups refer to these adverse events as "fluoroquinolone toxicity". These groups of people claim to have suffered serious long term harm to their health from using fluoroquinolones. This has led to a class action lawsuit by people harmed by the use of fluoroquinolones as well as legal action by the consumer advocate group Public Citizen.

Levofloxacin-induced delirium - Slobodin G, Elias N, Zaygraikin N, Sheikh-Ahmad M, Sabetay S, Weller B, Odeh M.; Department of Internal Medicine A, Bnai Zion Medical Center, P.O. Box 6477, 31063, Haifa, Israel.
An 83-year-old man was admitted for right lower lobe pneumonia which did not improve after a 5-day outpatient treatment with amoxicillin/clavulinate and clarithromycin. An empiric treatment with levofloxacin was started with a significant improvement after 24 h of this treatment. On the third day of hospitalization, delirium developed, while the patient was afebrile and with normal blood oxygenation. Treatment with levofloxacin was stopped, and a complete resolution of the patient's delirium was observed 2 days later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of levofloxacin-induced delirium described in the medical literature.

Levofloxacin-induced acute psychosis - Moorthy N, Raghavendra N, Venkatarathnamma PN.; Department of General Medicine, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College and RLJ Hospital and Research Centre, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India.
A wide range of drugs can cause mental status changes. Fluoroquinolones are one among them and are underrecognised.
The CNS side effects of levofloxacin like headache, dizziness, restlessness, tremor, insomnia, hallucinations, convulsions, anxiety and depression are well documented.
We report a rare case of middle aged diabetic male admitted to hospital with multiple infections who developed acute psychosis following levofloxacin administration

Levofloxacin-induced neurological adverse effects such as convulsion, involuntary movement (tremor, myoclonus and chorea like), visual hallucination in two elderly patients]. - [Article in Japanese] - Yasuda H, Yoshida A, Masuda Y, Fukayama M, Kita Y, Inamatsu T.; Section of Infectious Diseases 1, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital.
Levofloxacin-induced-neurological adverse events such as convulsion, involuntary movement (tremor, myoclonus and chorea-like) and visual hallucination in two elderly patients are reported.
A 67-year-old man with minor alcoholism and a past-history of gastrectomy and cholecystectomy was given 300 mg/day of oral levofloxacin and fulfenamic acid for an upper respiratory infection. On the 4th day, he reported gradual exacerbation of hand tremor which resembled chorea-like involuntary movement and gait disturbance. He also experienced visual hallucinations. On the 7th day, he suffered generalized convulsions and was admitted. Serum concentration of levofloxacin at this time (3 hours after last administration of a 100 mg tablet of levofloxacin) was 3.6 micrograms/ml. Cessation of the agents promoted complete recovery of these neurological adverse effects within a week.
Another 85-year-old man with chronic bronchitis and slight renal impairment received long term administration of 200 mg/day of levofloxacin. On the 68th day of administration, gradual exacerbation of gait disturbance, dysarthria and chorea-like involuntary movement occurred. On the day of admission, 76 days after the start of administration, the serum level of levofloxacin was 2.55 micrograms/ml and that of spinal fluid was 1.12 micrograms/ml (3 hours after the last administration of a 100 mg tablet of levofloxacin). Cessation of the agents promoted complete recovery of these neurological adverse effects within the next two weeks. Both patients had no apparent neurological disorders except age-related brain atrophy. Age-related renal and brain impairment might have contributed to the neurological adverse effects of levofloxacin


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