Hasted, Professor John – 11 Spoon bending - Extreme deformation of metal objects
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
THE METAL-BENDERS” by JOHN B. HASTED
When deformation of ordinary metals is unusually extensive, a simple validation technique using specimen examination becomes possible.
We know from studies of stress-strain data that permanent plastic strains of greater than a certain value cannot be reached by the normal application of stress; this is because of the existence of a maximum in the stress-strain curve; when this is reached, the strain can increase rapidly until fracture results. The percentage strains which cannot be reached have been given as: aluminium 13%, soft copper 23% and mild steel 17%.
If such large strains are reached at the convex surface of a bent specimen, without cracking, then we know that some treatment such as heating to a high temperature, or paranormal softening, must have been necessary to produce the convex surface cracking. If crackless sharp bends of thick specimens through sufficiently small radii of curvature are obtained, then their existence points to the action of something other than normal force.
Neglecting humpback distortion, the strain at the convex surface of a circular bend of radius r at the neutral axis of a strip of thickness t. For a strip of width 2r twisted with pitch p, . Thus we may readily calculate whether the maximum strain has been exceeded.
We have found it to have been substantially exceeded in bends produced by Andrew G. and Julie Knowles, and in twists produced by Stephen North and Andrew G. The twisted spoons produced by Masuaki Kiyota …. fall into this category.
It should be mentioned that Professor Uphoff has also observed the boy producing such twists on identified stainless steel teaspoons; first the metal was softened by stroking with the forefinger, and then a quick twist of the wrist produced the necessary (but much reduced) torque. Professor Uphoff has offered a monetary reward for a performance of this operation by normal means under his specified conditions. …..
Thus we are introduced to the conception that the paranormal phenomenon is not precisely metal-bending, but temporary metal-softening; during this softening, a smaller, sometimes a very much smaller, degree of manual force is necessary for permanent deformation. So we return to the concept of validation by requiring the bend (to be produced by stroking) to be beyond human strength.