Freiherr Du Prel, Dr Carl - Magic as a natural science - 02 Levitation
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Magic as a natural science by Dr. Carl Freiherr Du Prel Part One: Magical Physics
2. The levitation.
The way a researcher approaches an incomprehensible phenomenon depends entirely on whether he has a general opinion about himself or about nature. One person rejects everything that does not fit into his system, and when he comes across such a fact with his nose, he will not correct his system, but treat the fact with contempt; the other will accept them, but like an annoying intruder whom he cannot ignore, and only the true researcher will even strive to find phenomena that give him opportunity to finely transform his system. In order to explain these different mental dispositions through the sayings of scholars, I will place them next to each other:
The medical academy in Paris.
"We have neglected those facts that are rare, unusual, wonderful, for example, the resuscitation of convulsive movements when holding the finger or a conductor by means of a ... door or wall through ... We didn't think we should focus our attention on rare, unusual, extraordinary cases that seem to contradict all the established physics".
"One is not happy to see anything new; on the contrary, it is often embarrassing".
"His (the perfect observer's) eyes will always be open to immediately shoot out any event which, according to the assumed theories, should not have occurred, for these facts are the beginnings of new theories".
When levitation was observed more and more frequently in recent times, this fact came up against that mental disposition which is the most frequent and most harmful to progress and which is characterized by the Paris Academy's proclamation. One did not examine, one rejected the fact as impossible. If one now takes the only correct starting point for the inevitable investigation, namely gravity, then it first becomes apparent that levitation, i.e. the suspension of the gravity of an earthly body would even have to occur if we could eliminate the earth, fine centre of attraction, but that is not the case; so levitation could be obtained only by a force which, countering the gravitational pull of the earth, overcomes it.
The question of whether such powers exist is fortunately beyond doubt. Nature itself offers us examples. Heat expands; under the influence of heat, the cohesion of the atoms of a body, i.e. their mutual attraction, is reduced and abolished. Even more instructive is the example of the mineral magnet. The magnet carrying a piece of iron overcomes its gravity. If a glass tube is placed between two strong magnets, into which an iron ball is dropped, it floats freely in the tube. Magnetism shows, as in the case of magnetic repulsion, a contrast to gravity. Now a hundred years ago Mesmer discovered a new force whose source is the human organism and which he called "animal magnetism" because he found remarkable analogies between it and mineral magnetism, such as the attraction and effect of stroke and counterstroke.
These analogies suggest that animal magnetism can also counteract gravity, i.e. cause levitation. Of course, levitation cannot only be spoken of when a body is lifted vertically in the opposite direction to gravity, but any movement in any direction, in which gravity must first be overcome, can be called levitation; even the absence of a movement that could be expected, e.g. that, as Gmelin tells us, a coin on the forehead of a person afflicted with headache remained stuck against the law of gravity.
One hundred years ago Petetin did experiments with cataleptic. If he held his hand over the hand of the subjects at an inch distance, it rose and followed with the arm to the slowly retreating operator. The physics of mesmerism was actually first developed by Reichenbach and it is only with him that we find more detailed experiments.
He says: "There are certain peculiar kinds of attraction and repulsion in Od's teaching that unite and separate his poles. If one lets a sensitive person stretch out his left hand flat, the switch turned downwards and horizontally parallel with the ground, and approaches it from below the fingertips of the right hand, then his stretched out one gets a feeling of heaviness, it wants to descend, it is as if pulled down. If, on the other hand, the fingertips of the left hand are approached, he feels everything the other way round: the hand is seized by a feeling of lightness, it wants to go upwards, it is as if lifted out, - all very weak and delicate, but nevertheless distinct and the same in all sensitive persons, unless they are too low sensitive. If one carries out the same experiments with another, the right hand of the sensitive person, then all the same feelings arise, only with reversed results...
The limbs of the same kind repel each other very weakly, while the limbs of the different kind attract each other so tenderly; in one case, these phenomena add to the natural heaviness of the hand and thus reinforce it; in the other, they subtract from it and facilitate it ".
Reichenbach has proved that this attraction and repulsion can also be achieved by non-living opposite poles; and that crystal poles and magnetic poles produce the same phenomena as fingertips.
He made similar experiments with other od sources, sunlight, plants and amorphous bodies. His experiment in which human magnetism opposes mineral magnetism is odd:
"I placed a small bar magnet on the tip of right index finger of Mr. Leopolder, a mechanic in Vienna, now at the University of Lemberg. It was 5 inches long and had 1/16 square inch cross section. It also moved and turned inwards against the body on both fingers, right and left hand. However, this was accompanied by a new perception, which is of increasing interest for the current investigation. The bar magnet turned inward under all circumstances, its carrier could take any possible direction towards the horizon.
So if he was sitting with his face facing south, and had the rod on his right index finger positioned in the parallel direction, the north pole of the magnet facing west, then the magnet had to move north, the magnetic force pulling it towards the north pole of the earth, as soon as it was strong enough to overcome its friction on the fulcrum, its base, i.e. the tip of his finger. If this happened now, the torque would have set the rod in motion by overcoming the friction, so the north pole of the rod should have turned north, but it did not, but turned south, directly contrary to its natural polar attraction, but its south pole turned jerkily towards the body of its living carrier, i.e. the earth's north pole.
The magnet was thus, far from obeying its magnetic attraction, overcome by the torque (odic attraction and repulsion) and violated its innermost nature to move to opposite poles. So great, then, and so resolutely peculiar and independent is the force which we have here under investigation, so much stronger is the (odic) turning force under the present circumstances than the magnetic turning force, that it takes up the struggle with the magnetism which directly opposes it and emerges victorious from it... The result was the same under the influence of all the cardinal directions, and always identical with many other sensitive persons and other bar magnets in every repetition."
These experiments, modified many times, yielded the same result. Low sensitive people did not produce these movements at all. Some had days, even hours, where the rotations took place periodically. Summing up, Reichenbach says:
"We perceive an unknown force, which manifests itself to the sensitive, but also only to the sensitive, but seems to be lacking in the non-sensitive ... It is concentrated by purifying several sources of force, more abundantly spent by higher sensitive persons, can be swelled by odic inhibitions, to the production of ulcerations, fainting and convulsions. Their manifestations are weakened by everything that weakens the odic development, by confronting unlike poles... These (inhibitory effects) are not continuous, but occur intermittently".
Since experiments on inanimate objects are of considerably greater force of proof, not only for the doubter, I now have to pass over to them, and for this purpose they touch the sphere of spiritualism.
Since not only the doubter will find experiments on inanimate objects of considerably greater conclusive value, I must now move on to those and for this purpose touch upon the field of spiritualism. But I can reassure the reader by saying that these are not ghosts at all, but rather a ...
[... indiscernible text...]
Professor Butlerow has also noted this force, which sometimes connects with gravity, sometimes counteracts it. He calls it a little exact way of speaking, when one speaks of a "change in weight".
"None of us, of course, have ever meant a true change in weight. This was understood to mean only a change in the specification of the instrument, which was caused by a force acting alongside the weight. This force sometimes acted in the same direction as gravity and added up to it, sometimes it counteracted gravity and the result was a reduction in the indication of the instrument".
As far as the source of this power is concerned, Butlerow agrees with Crookes that it is taken from the weighable substances of the body of the medium. It is only the transmission of the living force from one material body to another. Also the seemingly voluntary mass movement must be explained in the same way. The direct touch of the object by the medium is not always necessary. About an experiment with Home, Butlerow says:
"A while later, Home took a handcuff that was on our table and held it next to the edge of the table, some distance away from him and a little below the level of the table board. The bell and Home's hand was quite well lit by the candle flame. After a few seconds Home tapped the cuff on the hand and it remained "floating" in the air.
Butlerow also observed such phenomena in the presence of other people of his acquaintance who were not professional mediums.
But if we now see that without the addition or removal of matter, the weight of a body can be changed, we can see once again that the weight of a body is not actually based on its material mass, but on its od content, and that depending on its polarity, the weight of the body can be changed by the removal or loading of odds. Here again is a point where I am forced to stop, a problem which I keep my hands off and leave to the natural scientists.
The behavior of the comet's tail seemed to force us to resolve gravity into electrical attraction, levitation into electrical repulsion. With moving the table and similar phenomena we see the same results occurring under the influence of od as a moving force. Now Reichenbach has shown that Od and electricity are intimately connected in nature, although can be demonstrated separately; so it must be shown on which of the two calculations the phenomena arise, a problem that should hardly be ripe for discussion yet.
So much is certain that by od-removal or loading the gravity of the bodies is changed, as if their matter would increase or decrease: that furthermore the force, by which these changes take place, must be polarized, since it can cause both phenomena: increase and decrease of gravity. Both phenomena can only be due to changes in the odic polarity.
However, the performances of this force must be described as very significant. Wallace says:
"In the presence of the famous medium Daniel Home, I have weighed a large table, which had previously been weighed in broad daylight, so that no illusion was possible, and seen its weight change up to 30 to 40 pounds".
But still the experiments of Crookes have to be mentioned, because of their exactness, and because here the changes occurred according to the wish of the experimenter:
Experiment 1: "Be lightweight." The table rose, while the scales showed a weight of barely 1/2 pound.
Experiment 2: "Be heavy." Test required a force of 20 pounds to lift the table on one side; all hands were under the edge of the table, thumbs visible.
Experiment 3: I ask if the resistive force can be used to lift the table completely horizontally while pulling on the weighing cord. Immediately the table rose completely from the floor, the tabletop remained completely horizontal, and the scales showed a weight of 24 pounds. During this experiment, Mr. Home's hands lay out of the table, while those of the others present were under the tabletop as before.
Experiment 4: "Be heavy". All hands under the tabletop; a force expenditure of 43 pounds was needed to lift the table from the floor.
Experiment 5: "Be heavy". This time Mr. B. took a light and shone under the table to convince himself that the increased weight was not caused by the feet or any other way by those present. While he did this, I tested the scales and found that a force of 27 pounds was needed to lift the table. Mr. Home, Mr. A. R. Wallace and the two ladies had their fingers completely under the edge of the table and Mr. B. testified that no one was secretly touching the table so that it could increase the weight below.
" ... I asked if I could weigh the table while Mr. Home did not touch it at all. - Yes!
Experiment 1: Then I fixed the spring scale to the table and asked to make it heavier; I tried to lift it from the floor. It took 25 pounds of force to pull it up. During this time Mr. Home sat in his chair leaning back, his hands away from the table and his feet touching those of his two neighbors.
Experiment 2. "Be heavy." Mr. H. now took a light, bent down and shone under the table to convince himself that no one was touching it while I was doing the same observation on top of the table. Mr. Home's hands and feet were the same as before; the pointer on the scales indicated a weight of 25 pounds."
Just as the mineral magnet magnetizes a piece of iron - the so-called magnetic induction - and just as an electrically charged body can influence another, the human body also contains a force that can be transferred to objects. The number of bodies that can be influenced by animal magnetism even seems to be very large. Slade touched the back of a chair with his fingertip and it raised for three feet, floated for a few seconds and then fell.
Zöllner and Wilhelm Weber observed the deflection of the magnetic needle by the emanations from Slade's hands. Zöllner suggested that a non-magnetic needle should be magnetized permanently. A knitting needle was selected from several, which, checked by the compass, proved to be completely non-magnetic, in so far as both poles were attracted.
Slade placed this needle on a blackboard, held it under the table in the same way as when direct writings were written, and after about four minutes, when the blackboard with the knitting needle was put back on the table, it was magnetic at one end, and only at one end, so strong that iron filings and small sewing needles stuck to this end, and the needle of the compass could easily be moved around in a circle.
The created pole was a south pole, because the north pole of the magnetic needle was attracted, but the south pole was repelled. So it turned out that under the influence of the medium the molecular currents can be rotated, i.e. their position can be changed, on which according to Weber's and Ampere's theory the magnetization of the bodies is based. In the case of somnambulists it has often been observed that scissors and needles became magnetic during their handicrafts and it is probably due to the same influence that there are people whose pocket watches never work properly without being able to turn them off.
Magnetic influence seems to be also - assuming the fact - when in the Bible the prophet Elisha goes with others to the Jordan, where wood was to be chopped down to build a hut. One dropped the axe into the Jordan and complained about it because it was borrowed. Elisha had the place shown to him where it had fallen in, cut off a piece of wood and threw it down. Then the iron swam and could be seized.
In spiritualistic séances it becomes apparent that the levitation force as a moving force is first taken from the medium, but that the spectators also release it. The medium differs from normal human beings only in its degree, by the greater lightness with which his odic emanations take place. During séances one strictly sees that the chain of hands is not interrupted, which would lead to an interruption of the phenomenon and could become dangerous if a levitation phenomenon occurs. If, for example, objects float in the air, they fall when the chain of hands is disengaged - a clear proof that the levitation force was drawn from those present.
In a dark séance in Vienna I heard - I couldn't see it - that a heavy music box, which I was only able to lift with both arms, was opened and floated around the room playing, and if we had broken the chain, something similar would probably have happened to Auteuil, where a guitar was flying around and, since someone broke the chain after him, fell down and cut his forehead skin.
During such séances it has often been observed that inanimate objects, tables, armchairs, etc., moved in a straight line towards the medium, sometimes even were repelled, and if in Christian mysticism it is told that images, contemplated devoutly by the saints, moved towards them, then perhaps there could also be something true about it, only that the saint himself was the unconscious agent working at a distance from the medium.
Such phenomena are therefore first of all a force lying in the medium himself, which is exteriorized and appears as a moving force. Reichenbach already proved that Odic radiations form a moving force, and Rochas dedicated a whole book to this problem, in which he proves that the Odic radiations of the mediums are to be regarded as carriers of a moving force. Like mineral magnetism, animal magnetism also acts at a distance, like it is polarized and can combine with gravity as a moving force or lift it out.
In view of the many analogies that exist between mineral and animal magnetism, this further coincidence is not surprising. The long-distance effect, like all magic in general, is therefore not the performance of the physical man, but of the Odic man, and since we have to think of it according to the scheme of the physical man, we can say: the long-distance effect is the performance of the astral body. Now we see this force also active in spiritualistic séances; the question arises whether we can confine the phenomena to the media alone, or have to take refuge in foreign intelligences, in spirits - or finally whether identical forces at both sources combine in the same sense in the phenomena.
Now we have already seen that the exteriorizable astral body appears not only as a carrier of a moving force but also as a carrier of the life force, the creative force of sensation and consciousness. So it can lead a separate and independent existence from the physical human being, in other words: it is immortal, which will be proven experimentally by the way taken by Rochas.
The performance of the astral body during a person's lifetime, as in the case of somnambulists and the mediums, must therefore be identical to the performance of the astral body, which is permanently exteriorized after death. The phenomena of spiritualistic séances can therefore come from both sources, the mediums and the spirits, and numerous experiments confirm that spirits operate through forces that are amplified by and merge with the homogeneous forces of the medium.
But we now have every reason to seek information from those who refer to odic relationships, who are consciously placed in the odic relations. So our teachers are first of all the somnambulists; the mediums are even less suitable for it, because they are either in a trance during the phenomena, in which they are conscious, or awake, in which they at least lack the Odian consciousness.
So let's stay with somnambulists. One of the most strange, which at the same time was a medium, the Seeress of Prevorst has made sayings in relation to the levitation phenomenon that are to be observed. She describes the odic or animal magnetic force with the word nerve spirit and says that this is a much more impressive and stronger power than electricity, galvanism and magnetism.
Before Reichenbach and Rochas, she attributes to the nerve spirit the ability to raise the heaviness in the bodies. In people in a deep magnetic state, this nerve spirit is easily released from the nerves and the soul and therefore it is possible for them to act through it at a distance and manifest themselves through knocking.
Medical Counsellor Klein quotes a somnambulist who demanded his watch and placed it on her forehead, where it remained glued to all the movements of her head. Jacolliot saw a fakir with a peacock feather as a ladder pressing down the bowl of scales, while the other bowl contained 86 kilos. The fakir touched with his fingertips the edge of a vessel that moved back and forth while the water in the vessel remained immobile. Several times the vessel rose seven to eight inches high from the ground. He asked for a pencil, laid it floating on the water, and now holding his hand over it, he moved the pencil in all directions. Then he touched it gently and the pencil sank to the bottom of water.
On a small table, which Jacolliot lifted up slightly with two fingers, the fakir laid his hand for about a quarter of an hour and then Jacolliot could no longer move it; but since he put all his strength into it, the plate remained in his hands. A few minutes later, however, the power he had been given was radiated and the table was movable again.
When leaving, the fakir noticed a bunch of feathers of the strangest birds of India. He took a handful and threw them as high as he could into the air. They slowly fell, but when they came near his hand, they turned, ascended, and stuck to the canvas ceiling of the terrace. When the fakir was gone, they fell down.
Crookes produced apparatuses in which the mechanical transmission of force through the medium Home was completely disconnected and the weight altering took place without contact. He saw a chair with a lady sitting out and then kneeling several inches off the ground, hovering for about ten seconds and then slowly descending.
All these abilities now, gravitation propagation and levitation, cannot emanate from the material body of the medium, but only from the astral body, which, itself of an Odic nature and polarized, affects the Odic interior of things. Since we now stay in the death of this astral body, the same abilities must also come from spirits. Also in this respect it is remarkable that the Seeress of Prevorst attributed the ability to abolish gravity not only to her nerve spirit, but also to the spirits.
She said several times that spirits have the ability to abolish gravity in things, and this seems to me to be experimentally proven in all those spiritualistic phenomena where gravity is increased or decreased according to the operator's wish, as in the earlier mentioned attempts of Crookes.
At a seance of Dr. Hallok with Home, a glass of water, two candlesticks, a pencil and several sheets of paper were on the table. As the table rose and tilted 30 degrees, all these objects remained in their position as if they had been pinned to it. It was demanded that the table should hold the objects with the same inclination with the exception of the pencil. The pencil went to the ground and the other objects remained. Then it was put down again and the same was demanded of the glass, which slid down and was caught. In another séance, the table tilted 45 degrees, but flowerpots, books and various small items remained in place.
In a seance Homes at Louis Napoleon, a girandole with burning candles was placed from the vertical position into the horizontal one, floating freely, with the flames continuing to burn horizontally. Even more inevitably, the spiritualistic hypothesis is promoted in the so-called apports, where objects are brought to the desire from a distance, as, for example, at the very seance before Napoleon, where objects were brought from the fifth and sixth salons. Reports of this kind are teeming and exact experiments with recorders would undoubtedly show that the apport is based on levitation; this can be seen in the numerous ghost stories where objects of all kinds are used as projectiles.
These stories contain the common details that the persons hit by such objects were not injured. Glanvil tells a ghost story from London, where someone was hit on the head, but very gently, by a shoe thrown at him. At the haunted house in Mülldorf someone was hit by a hammer, another by a brick, but all the projectiles were so light that they caused no pain and, what fell down, seemed to have lost their weight.
In the Munich's courtyard everything that was movable was thrown into the windows, but even heavy objects, despite their speed, got stuck in the windows, others only touched the glass and then fell down. To their astonishment, people hit by heavy stones felt the attack only slightly despite the high throwing speed, and the bodies fell down vertically on them as well.
A spoon of 3/4 pounds hit a man who felt only a soft touch. Advocate Joller tells us that stones were often thrown into his house and one or the other child was struck, but barely noticeable. During the haunting in Maulbronn monastery various objects were thrown, but once they had passed through the windows, they did not fall to the ground but slowly floated down. In another case stones were thrown, but it was like being thrown with a sponge.
Daumer's bizarre explanation that humans are preserved by a mystical shooting spirit in such attacks does not rhyme with his own concession that sometimes abandonments do occur, and it will probably one day give way to a scientific explanation that cannot be very different from a polarized force.
We know that neutral electricity of a body can be decomposed by influence, polarized, so that positive electricity escapes, negative electricity remains bound, or vice versa, depending on the influence. If one touches a conductor during the influencing of it, electricity released by it escapes, which is always of the same kind as that of the influencing body, while the opposite remains bound in the conductor.
In a lecture at the International Congress of Psychics in Chicago in 1893, Professor Coues presented three hypotheses about moving tables and similar phenomena as conceivable: The mechanical theory, also known as the theory of unconscious muscle action, of which he says:
"This is the natural and obvious line of retreat of most physicists and physiologists who are compelled to admit the fact of table moving, but are little, if any, familiar with psychological questions, want to see themselves immediately upon the end of their wisdom and thereby conceal their ignorance".
Furthermore the telekinetic theory, according to which inanimate objects move in a direction not corresponding to gravity by a force, which is communicated to the objects by living persons at a distance. At last the spiritualistic theory, according to which such movements of disembodied intelligences are made on the objects just as they are made by ourselves.
I don't say a word about the first hypothesis, because it removes the problem in order to make the explanation easier for itself. It has been stated a thousand times that objects are also moved without touch; so let the hypothesis, even if it were true, explain only a small fraction of the phenomena. If you turn science into a Procrustean bed on which to lay the problems, it is easy to explain. As for the other two theories, Professor Coues is wrong to separate them.
If objects are moved by spirits, then it does not happen at all "as by ourselves". For this a body of human density would be necessary and this can only be mentioned in the complete materializations, so we have to ascribe another mode of operation to the spirits and we can only ascribe to them that of the second hypothesis, the telekinetic one. Telekinesis, a remote moving force, cannot emanate from the material body of the living, but only from their astral body. But we keep it and its abilities in death and the deceased have it, so in both cases the way of operation is telekinetic, both for the abnormally acting humans and for the spirits. It is a hundredfold verifiable proposition that the abnormal forces of man that occur through the astral body are the normal forces of spirits.
An invisible or fluid hand cannot possibly move an object mechanically, and if it will happen itself that a fluid hand grasps the object, it will happen out of thought association through the human memory associated with materialization, or because levitation is facilitated by touch.
The correct classification of the movement types, apart from the purely mechanical of the normal human being, is therefore the following: the first is through unconscious muscle movements. The fact that it does not take place when moving the table, but rather that the Od is the moving force, is proven by the associated luminous phenomena in the darkroom. Secondly, the telekinetic one, which happens through the astral body and without touch, and this is either animistic if it comes from the living, or spiritualistic if it comes from the deceased.
The fact of levitation has not only been established just yesterday, but since decades by sometimes very exact experiments. Opponents only know to throw aside that levitation is impossible because it contradicts the law of gravity. But whoever speaks this way, first of all proves that he is not aware of the established facts. We know so little about gravity that it cannot be brought into the field against levitation. It is wrong to say that bodies are heavy. Even the consideration that gravity decreases with the square of distance should prevent us from adding gravity to the concept of matter. Bodies are difficult to attract, but there is so little lack of them in the world that they appear to have gravity as the very concept of matter.
Furthermore, we see that electricity and gravity can also counteract, and since they are dual forces, gravity seems to be the one-sided actuation of a dual, polarized force, namely electrical or odic attraction, but which is transformed into repulsion, levitation, when the influenced body changes its sign - like some comet tails - or its neutral electricity is decomposed. So gravity and levitation contradict each other, but not differently than the two poles of a magnet.
 Report of the Commissioners of the Royal Society of Medicine on the examination of Animal Magnetism. 21.
 Birchow: About miracles. 23.
 Herschel: Introduction to the study of natural science. 104.
 Perty: The mystical apparitions. I. 271.
 Petetin: Thesis on the discovery of the phenomena presented by catalepsy and somnambulism. I. 21.
 Reichenbach: Who is sensitive, who is not? 34.
 The sensitive human I. 447 - 456.
 Translator's remark: The word "od" stands for a hypothetical power once thought to pervade nature and account for various scientific phenomena; Origin: mid 19th cent.: arbitrary term coined in German by Baron von Reichenbach (1788–1869), German scientist. - Oxford Dictionary
 The odic flame. 83 - 85
 The odic flame. 88-89
 Same 95.
 Same 106.
 Psychical studies. 1874. 24-25
 Reichenbach: The Dynamide.
 Sphinx. X. 265.
 Crookes: Records of meetings with Home. 10-12.
 Annals of physical sciences. IV. 196.
 Zöllner: Scientific treatises. II. 1. 340.
 2 magicians. 6. 4-6.
 Rochas: Exteriorization of movement function.
 Badaud: Magic.
 Reichenbach: The odic torrent and some phenomena of movement.
 Rochas: Exteriorization of movement function.
 Kerner: The somnambulistic tables. 21. The Seeress of Prevorst 158.
 Archive for animal magnetism. V, 1. 149
 Jacolliot: Spiritism in the world. 215, 281, 282, 285, 295, 300
 Crookes: Spiritism and Science. 87-97.
 Psychic Studies 1874. 108.
 Kerner: Pages from Prevorst. I. 119.
 Home: Revelations about my supernatural life. 44. 222.
 Hellenbach : Prejudices of mankind. III. 265.
 Glanvil: Sadducismus triumphatus. II. 220.
 Görres: Christian mysticism. V. 145.
 Hörres: III. 362.
 Daumer: The Heister Empire. II, 253. cf. Joller: Description of self-experienced mystical phenomena.
 Daumer II, 256, 259.
 Daumer II, 267, 268.
 Ihndall: Lectures on electricity.
 Sphinx XVIII, 251-260.