Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action
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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:279726. doi: 10.1155/2013/279726. Epub 2013 Feb 20.
Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.
Rodrigues KA1, Amorim LV, de Oliveira JM, Dias CN, Moraes DF, Andrade EH, Maia JG, Carneiro SM, Carvalho FA.
- 1Medicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil.
Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.