Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) -- Granado (Sp.), Granatapfelbaum (Ger.), Granatapfelstrauch (Ger.), Grenadier (Fr.), Mangrano (Sp.), Pomegranate, Romanzeiro (Port.), Zakuro (Jap.)

Identifier

022816

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) -- Granado (Sp.), Granatapfelbaum (Ger.), Granatapfelstrauch (Ger.), Grenadier (Fr.), Mangrano (Sp.), Pomegranate, Romanzeiro (Port.), Zakuro (Jap.)


Chemicals

1,2,3,4,6-PENTA-O-GALLOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker 10 uM PC44:441 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.2 uM JPS82:487

1,2,4,6-TETRA-O-GALLOYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker 10 uM PC44:441

2-(2-PROPENYL)-DELTA'-PIPERIDEINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2-O-GALLOYLPUNICALIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALKALOIDS Root Bark 1,000 - 7,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARACHIDIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 40 - 636 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 5,000 - 35,858 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASIATIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

Collagenic W&M317

BETA-SITOSTEROL Bark: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETULINIC-ACID Bark: PHYT13:2002 JAD Leaf: PHYT13:2002 JAD

Anthelmintic X11315752 ; Antibacterial X10630117 ; Anticancer JBH ; Anticarcinomic JBH ; Antiedemic X7701004 ; AntiHIV 14.8 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antileukemic X9353895 ; Antimalarial IC50=19-26 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimelanomic NYT3/28/95 ; Antinociceptive; Antiplasmodial PR13:115 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral 14.8 uM; Apoptotic; Cytotoxic 16.4 uM JNP66:263 50-100 ppm BPCC ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor X11684183 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 200 ug/ml PC48:495 IC50=101 uM YHH30:621

BORIC-ACID Fruit 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Insecticide FHN

CALCIUM Fruit 30 - 650 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-OXALATE Petiole 40,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 162,000 - 927,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAROTENE Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CASUARIIN Bark: DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CASUARININ Bark: DUKE1992A Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiperoxidant JBH ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:91 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.2 uM JPS82:487 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=36 uM CPB38:1225

CEREBROSIDE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHLORINE Fruit 20 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CIS-9,TRANS-11,CIS-13-TRIENE-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRIC-ACID Fruit Juice 8,100 - 12,300 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COPPER Fruit 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CORILAGIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=3.7 mM/l; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic PM337.1986 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiinflammatory DFN:161 ; Antilipolytic; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PCF ; Antiperoxidant PCF:93 ; Antiradicular PCF:96 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=40 uM JNP55:401 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.5 uM JPS82:487 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=>40 uM CPB38:1225

CYANIDIN-3,5-DIGLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CYANIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-MANNITOL Bark: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A Stem: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN-3,5-DIGLUCOSIDE Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant JAF45:3395

ELAIDIC-ACID Pericarp 5,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory IC50=54 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153

ELLAGIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient 1.2 mg/kg ivn mus AFR27:172 ; ACE-Inhibitor IC50=5 mM/l; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=0.2 uM IC50=0.2 ug/ml (strong activity); Antiaflatoxin X1394115 ; Antianaphylactic AFR27:172 ; Antibacterial 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticancer (Cervix) JNU ; Anticancer (Colon) JNU ; Anticancer (Esophagus) JNU ; Anticancer (Mouth) JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract CPB37:2531 ; Antigingivitic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiGTF ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; AntiHIV IC90=200 ug/ml JNP54:152 ; Antihyperthyroid X6724503 ; Antiinflammatory AFR27:172 ; Antimalarial IC50=0.5 uM RAS ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antioxidant 2/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 >50 x tocopherol PCF:142 IC98=30 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=29 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiplaque 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=0.5 uM RAS ; Antiseptic 1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antistreptococcic ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Antiviral EMP5:224 ; Antiyeast IC50=10.5 uM X11678651 ; Apoptotic JNU ; Astringent M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 3 ppm; Candida-SAP-Inhibitor IC50=8.4 uM X11678651 ; Cytotoxic 4.6 ug/ml ACM:359 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Detoxicant PAL:334 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=20 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Hepatoprotective IC55=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor EMP5:224 ; Juvabional 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 0.4 g/kg rat CAR17:821 ; Sunscreen 0.5% AllHerb1998 ; Topoisomerase-I-Antagonist JMF2:167 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=3.1 uM CPB38:1225

ELLAGITANNIN Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 411 ; AntiHIV PC29(4):1127 ; Antioxidant PC29(4):1127 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Cardiotoxic IJO16:22 ; Immunostimulant 411 ; Interferonogenic 411 ; Reverse-Transcriptase-Inhibitor EMP5:223

ESTRADIOL Seed: DUKE1992A

Carcinogenic (Breast) (Endometrium); Estrogenic

ESTRONE Seed 17 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiimpotence MAR ; Antimenopausal 0.7-2.8 mg/day/orl/wmn M29 ; Antiprostatadenomic DUKE1992B ; Antivaginitic DUKE1992B ; Aphrodisiac DUKE1992B ; Carcinogenic; Estrogenic 0.1-5 mg/woman/day MAR ; Transdermal

FAT Fruit 1,000 - 38,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 50,000 - 200,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Fruit 2,000 - 232,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 224,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLAVOGALLOL Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRIEDELIN Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory 30 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Diuretic JBH

FRUCTOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GALLIC-ACID Pericarp 900 - 40,000 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GLUCOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GRANATIN-A Pericarp: DUKE1992A

Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiperoxidant PCF:93

GRANATIN-B Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GRANATINS Leaf 15,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GUM Petiole 32,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

INULIN Petiole 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor (diagnostic)=50 mg/kg/ivn/man M29 ; Anticolitic? JN129:1395S ; Antidiabetic EJC49S:S145 ; Antidiarrheic JN129:1395S ; Antiobesity? JN129:1395S ; Antiosteoporotic? JN129:1395S ; Bifidogenic EJC49S:S145 ; Chemopreventive (Breast Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Chemopreventive (Colon Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Expectorant PED ; Gastrostimulant EJC49S:S145 ; Hypocholesterolemic EJC49S:S145 ; Hypoglycemic EJC49S:S145 ; Immunostimulant; Laxative JN129:1395S ; Lipolytic; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Probiotigenic JN129:1395S

IRON Fruit 3 - 16 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOPELLETIERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Amblyopic WOI ; Emetic WOI ; Laxative WOI ; Mydriatic WOI ; Paralytic WOI

ISOQUERCETRIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

MAGNESIUM Fruit 120 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MALTOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic JBH ; Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

MALVIDIN Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antifertility JE32:174 ; Antioxidant; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

MALVIDIN-PENTOSE-GLYCOSIDE Fruit Juice: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MANNITOL Pericarp 18,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH

MASLINIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

Antiedemic FT63(1):3 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV IC100=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antiinflammatory CPB34:2164.1986 ; Antiviral JNP59:643 ; Protease-Inhibitor JNP59:643

METHYL-ISOPELLETIERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-PELLETIERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MUCILAGE Petiole 6,000 - 340,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Demulcent PJB1(2):279 ; Hypocholesterolemic GAZ

NEO-CHLOROGENIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Vulnerary CAN210

NIACIN Fruit 3 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

OLEIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OXALIC-ACID Fruit 140 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PALMITIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 6 - 31 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PECTIN Fruit 2,700 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp 20,000 - 40,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PELARGONIDIN-3,5-DIGLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PELARGONIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PELLETIERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic M11 ; Cestodicide M11 ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Hypertensive 1 mg/kg DUKE1992B ; Laxative WOI ; Mydriatic WOI ; Oxyuricide DUKE1992B ; Paralytic WOI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide LDlo=40 (ivn rbt) M11 ; Vertiginous WOI

PHOSPHATIDYL-CHOLINE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 10-25 g/day/orl; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM

PHOSPHATIDYL-INOSITOL Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHATIDYL-SERINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 80 - 3,182 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PHYTOSTEROLS Fruit 170 - 892 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP

POLYPHENOLS Fruit 2,200 - 10,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antiangiogenic X15629234 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor JNP59:205 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

POTASSIUM Fruit 1,330 - 18,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROTEIN Fruit 7,700 - 73,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 25,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH

PSEUDOPELLETIERINE Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUNICACORTEINS Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUNICAFOLIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.2 uM JPS82:487

PUNICALAGIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

AntiHIV JNP54:632 ; Antimalarial 2-8 ug/ml PR15:613 ; AntiMRSA X17566148 ; Antioxidant IC50=2.3 uM X17566148 ; Antiplasmodial 1.5-8 ug/ml PR15:613 IC50=7.5-8.8 uM X17566148 ; Hepatoprotective PR15:206 ; Hepatotoxic PR15:206 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.2 uM JPS82:487 ; Toxic PR15:206 ; Trypanocide 1.5-1.75 uM PR15:613

PUNICALIN Pericarp: DUKE1992A

AntiAIDS DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective PR15:206 ; Hepatotoxic PR15:206 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor ID50=8uM JNP53(3):588 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.5 uM JPS82:487 ; Toxic PR15:206

PUNICIC-ACID Seed 35,000 - 140,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antieicosanoid PUN ; Antiinflammatory PUN ; Antileukemic X14585180 ; Antiprostaglandin; COX-1-Inhibitor X14585180 ; COX-2-Inhibitor X14585180 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor X14585180 ; Cytotoxic X14585180

PUNIGLUCONIN Bark: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESINS Pericarp 45,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SODIUM Fruit 9 - 350 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

SORBITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic (Insulin-Sparing) 30 g/man/day MAR ; Antiketotic M11 ; Cataractagenic WER ; Cathartic JE26:82 ; Diuretic M11 ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-280,000 ARC ; Humectant JBH ; Laxative 20-50 g/day M29 5-15 g/man/day M28 ; Purgative 30-50 g/man/day MAR ; Sweetener 0.6 x sucrose M11

STARCH Seed: DUKE1992A

Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

STEARIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STRICTININ Leaf: DUKE1992A

Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC100=0.5 uM JPS82:487

STYPTIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SULFUR Fruit 120 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

TANNIN Fruit Juice 1,700 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 110,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Pericarp 104,000 - 336,000 ppm DUKE1992A Root Bark 280,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Stem Bark 100,000 - 250,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

THIAMIN Fruit 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

URSOLIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A

Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

VIT-B-6 Fruit 1 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Fruit 780,000 - 823,220 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 350,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WAX Pericarp 8,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

PubMed

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Pomegranates

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:359: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 359.

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

AFR27:172: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AllHerb1998: AllHerb1998

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

BPCC: Biosyn. Prod. Cancer Chemotherapy (Petit et al)

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CAR17:821: Ahn, D., Putt, D., Kresty, L., Stoner, G. D., Fromm, D., Hollenberg, P. F. 1996. The Effects of Dietary Ellagic Acid on Rat Hepatic and Esophageal Mucosal Cytochromes P450 and Phase II Enzymes. Carcinogenesis, 17(4): 821-828.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB34:2164.1986: Chem & Pharm. Bull., 34: 2164, 1986.

CPB37:2531: Shimizu, M., Horie, S., Terashima, S., Ueno, H., et al. 1989. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Natural Products.II. Active Components of a Paraguayan Crude Drug "Para-parai mi," Phyllanthus niruri. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(9): 2531-2532, 1989.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:161: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJC49S:S145: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:223: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:224: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 224.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

IJO16:22: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3395: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE32:174: Jim Duke's personal files

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:167: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 167.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN129:1395S: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(3):588: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:152: Tan, G.T., Pezzuto, J.M., Kinghorn,* A.D., Hughes, S.H. Evaluation Of Natural Products As Inhibitors Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Reverse Transcriptase. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 143-154, 1991.

JNP54:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:401: Hecht, S. M., Berry, D. E., MacKenzie, L. J., Busby, R. W., Nasuti, C. A. 1992. A Strategy For Identifying Novel, Mechanistically Unique Inhibitors of Topoisomerase I. J Natural Products, 55: 401-413.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPS82:487: Kashiwada, Y., Nonaka, G. I., Nishioka, I., Lee, J. H., Bori, I., Fukushima, Y., Bastow, K. F., Lee, K. H. 1993. Tannins as Potent Inhibitors of DNA Topoisomerase II in vitro. J Pharm Sci, 82: 487-492.

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M28: Martindale's 28th

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

NYT3/28/95: New York Times, 3/28/95.

PAL:334: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(4):1127: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC44:441: Zhu, M., Phillipson, J. D., Greengrass, P. M., Bowery, N. E., Cai, Y. 1997. Plant Polyphenols: Biologically Active Compounds or Non-Selective Binders to Protein? Phytochemistry, 44(3): 441-447.

PC48:495: Dunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:142: Osawa, T. Phenolic Antioxidants in Dietary Plants as Antimutagens.Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.11 p.142.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:91: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PCF:96: Jim Duke's personal files

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHYT13:2002: Pavannasasivam, G., & M.U.S. Sultanbawa. 1974. Betulinic acid in the Dilleniaceae and a review of its natural distribution. Phytochem. 13:2002-2006.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):279: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PM337.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:206: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:613: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

PUN: Newman, R. A., Lansky, E. P., with Block, M. L. 2007. Pomegranate - The Most Medicinal Fruit. Basic Health Publications, Laguna Beach, CA. 120 pp.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

W&M317: Jim Duke's personal files

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

X10630117: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X10856425: Jim Duke's personal files

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085357: Jim Duke's personal files

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X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

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X17566148: Jim Duke's personal files

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X2142592: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6724503: Jim Duke's personal files

X7701004: Jim Duke's personal files

X9025787: Jim Duke's personal files

X9145218: Jim Duke's personal files

X9353895: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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