Suppression

Scots pine

Category: Medicines - plant based

Type

Voluntary

Introduction and description

Red squirrels thrive on the nuts from  Scots pine cones

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a species of pine that is native to Europe and Asia, ranging from western Europe to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.

In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m, while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 metres (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude.

It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark

Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height and 1 m trunk diameter when mature, exceptionally to 45 metres (148 ft) tall on very conducive sites.  In Estonia, for example, there are some 220-year-old trees that are 46 metres (151 ft) tall in the forests of Järvselja.

The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. The habit of the mature tree is distinctive due to its long, bare and straight trunk topped by a rounded or flat-topped mass of foliage. The lifespan is normally 150–300 years, with the oldest recorded specimens in Lapland, Northern Finland over 760 years.

painting by Keith Brockie

It is also an exceptionally beautiful tree.

And it appears to have healing properties. 

There are three parts of the plant that appear to be of interest – the leaves [needles], the pollen and the flowers. 

We have used Dr Duke’s phytochemical database and provided an extract.  This gives the complete known chemical composition so far. 

The observations provide any known references to its use - the one from Bernard Moitessier is particularly interesting.

 

 

 

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae) -- Scotch Pine


 (+)-CATECHIN Plant: JSG   ACE-Inhibitor 0.24 mg/ml rbt (weak activity) T12311 IC50=0.155 mM/l; Antiaggregant IC68=200 ug/ml; Anticoagulant DUKE1992B ; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin PM57:A48 ; AntiHIV EC50=4 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=40-943 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM); Antimutagenic ID50=50-100 nM PCF ; Antioxidant; Antiperoxidant JBH ; Antiprostaglandin IC50=40-943 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM); Antiradicular JBH ; Antiulcer DFN:159 ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker 10 uM (weak activity) PC44:441 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC50=183-279 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM); COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=546-5,910 uM (cf indomethacin IC50=1 uM); Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic TC50=>100 ug/ml POP:270 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Hemostat JBH ; Hepatoprotective JBH ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Neuroprotective 1-10 uM X11030720 ; NO-Inhibitor IC11=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Vasoconstrictor AYL ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor MAB

 

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf: HHB  (-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

 

 

ADENINE Flower: HHB   Antianemic 1.5 g/day MAR ; Antigranulocytopenic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JE26:73 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hyperuricemic MAR ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Lithogenic ABC50:1317.1986 ; Myocardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

 

ALPHA-CAROTENE Leaf: HHB   Anticancer JNU ; Anticancer (Liver) JNU ; Anticancer (Lung) JNU ; Anticancer (Skin) JNU ; Antiproliferant 10 x beta-carotene JNU ; Colorant JBH ; Previtamin-A DUKE1992B

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Leaf: GEO  Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 600 - 2,500 ppm HHB Resin, Exudate, Sap: HHB Root Essent. Oil: DUKE1992A  Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ANISALDEHYDE Leaf: HHB   Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Fungicide PJB1(2):261 ; Insecticide CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.32 mM JAF47:4574 ID50=320 uM JAF46:1268 ID50=380-970 uM

 

ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf 3,000 ppm; HHB   Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

 

 

BETA-CAROTENE Leaf: HHB   Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-MYRCENE Leaf: HHB Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Perfumery M11 BETA-PINENE Leaf 200 - 1,500 ppm HHB Resin, Exudate, Sap: HHB Root Essent. Oil: DUKE1992A Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BORNEOL Leaf: HHB (-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BORNYL-ACETATE Leaf 60 - 175 ppm AYL GEO JBH (-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 70-80 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

BUTYRIC-ACID Leaf: HHB Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPRIC-ACID Leaf: HHB Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPROIC-ACID Leaf: AYL Irritant M&R503

CARYOPHYLLENE Leaf: AYL Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CHAMAZULENE Leaf: AYL Analgesic PJB1(1):170 ; Antiallergic LRN-MAR91 ; Antiinflammatory M11 ; Antileukotriene MAB ; Antioxidant PMP25:50 ; Antipyretic JBH ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):170 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vulnerary PJB1(1):170

 

 

CHOLINE Flower 3,400 ppm; HHB Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CITRAL Leaf: AYL Allergenic; Antiallergenic; Antiallergic KCH ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):266 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer X15931590 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiherpetic X17199238 ; Antihistaminic KCH ; Antiinflammatory X18409048 ; Antileishmanic; Antioxidant X12615076 ; Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol; Antishock KCH ; Antispasmodic TEU ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Liver) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Antiviral X17199238 ; Apoptotic; Barbituate-Synergist PJB1(2):266 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Calcium-Antagonist X18484528 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic X12637974 ; Caspase-3-Inducer X15931590 ; Chemopreventive; Cytotoxic X19876560 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Expectorant KCH ; FLavor FEMA 4-170 ARC ; Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml; Glaucomagenic JAR10:7 ; Glutathionigenic; Herbicide IC50=115 uM TOX ; Myorelaxant 200 mg/kg; Nematicide IC52=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=100-260 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X18409048 ; NO-Inhibitor X18409048 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.19 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms JAR10:7 ; Sedative 1 mg/kg TEU ED 1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446 ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trypanocide X17686189 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1,500 uM JAF51:2837 ID50=1.5 mM JAF47:4574

CUMINALDEHYDE Leaf: HHB Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Fungicide FT62:86 ; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide AYL ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM JAF47:4574 ; Ulcerogenic ZEB

D-LIMONENE Leaf: GEO Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Anticancer (Breast) 8,000 mg/kg; Anticancer (Gastric) JAR9(4):182 ; Antimelanomic IC50=450 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antitumor (Breast) 8,000 mg/kg; Antitumor (Gastric) JAR9(4):182 ; Antitumor-Promoter HH2(2):12 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive HH2(2):12 ; Chemopreventive JAR9(4):182 ; Differentiator BO2 ; FLavor FEMA 30-2,300 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic HH2(2):12 ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Litholytic MAR ; Nephrotoxic X8449457 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.19 uM X9242356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

Agnieszka Dymnicka

EPICATECHIN Plant: JSG Allelochemic IC100=1 mM 438 ; Anabolic X16028976 ; Antiaggregant IC94=200 ug/ml PR13:597 ; Antianaphylactic; Antibacterial MIC=>1,000 ug/ml; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin PM57:A48 ; Antidiabetic 30 mg/kg rat; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant JCE27:251 ; Antihepatitic V&D ; AntiHIV EC50=2 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihyperglycemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic IC50=>10 ug/ml; Antilipoperoxidant PR13:597 ; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant 2.5 x Vit. E BO2 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=10.2 uM PR14:501 IC50=6.3 ug/ml CPB38:1049 ; Antiperoxidant JBH ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Choline-Sparing AFR27:149 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic AFR27:149 ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Insulinogenic EMP6:170 ; Interleukin-1-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Interleukin-6-mRNA-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=140 uM PCF IC97=5 mM JAF38:688 ; NO-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Pancreatogenic DUKE1992B ; Peroxynitrite-Scavenger IC50=0.181 ug/ml JAF48:5768 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic PH2 ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor X16248545 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=>40

ESTRAGOLE Plant: JBH Antiaggregant IC50=320 uM PR4(3):93 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=257.6 uM gpg; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 4.4 uM/15 mos. scu mus AEHD1:139 ; DNA-Binder JBH ; FLavor FEMA 4-150 ARC ; Hepatocarcinogenic 0.23-0.46% diet/12 mos.; Hypothermic JBH ; Insecticide 382 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Mutagenic PJB1(2):269 ; Perfumery M11

EUGENOL-METHYL-ETHER Plant: JBH Cancer-Preventive 525 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; DNA-Binder JBH ; Hypothermic JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH

 

Deborah Phillips

FRUCTOSE Bark: HHB Leaf 25,000 ppm; HHB Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GALACTOSE Leaf 30 ppm; HHB Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GAMMA-CAROTENE Leaf: HHB Colorant JBH ; Previtamin-A DUKE1992B

L-LIMONENE Leaf: GEO Antiacetylcholinesterase IC25=1.2 mM JAF45:677 IC27=164 ug/ml JAF46:3434

LUTEIN Leaf: HHB Antiatherosclerotic SN159:391 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antimaculitic JNU ; Antinyctalopic JNU ; Antioxidant JN126:2098 ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antiradicular JN126:2098 ; Antiretinitic Optometry 71(3):147 ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACN71:575 ; Colorant JBH ; Prooxidant 5-40 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 2.5 ug PS131:95 ; Retinoprotectant Optometry 71(3):147 ; Ubiquiot JBH

NEOXANTHIN Leaf: HHB Colorant JBH ; Ubiquiot JBH

RAFFINOSE Bark: HHB Leaf 8,000 ppm; HHB Flatugenic PFH46:77

SABINENE Leaf: AYL Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SUCROSE Bark: HHB Leaf 17,000 ppm; HHB Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

 

 

TESTOSTERONE Pollen Or Spore: JBH Anabolic DUKE1992B ; Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticlimacteric 10-20 mg/man/day MAR ; Antihemophilic M29 ; Antihypogonadic 200-600 mg scu implant MAR ; Antiosteoporotic M29 ; Antitumor (Breast) 1,500 mg MAR ; Aphrodisiac M29 ; Calcium-Sparing M29 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B

VALERIC-ACID Leaf: HHB Antihysteric MAR ; Antiinsomniac 1.2-2.4 DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic JE26:86 ; FLavor FEMA 1-8 ARC ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant JE26:86 ; Perfumery M11 ; Sedative DUKE1992B ; Tranquilizer DUKE1992B

VIOLAXANTHIN Leaf: HHB Colorant JBH ; Ubiquiot JBH

XYLOSE Leaf 200 ppm; HHB Antidiabetic; Diagnostic MAR ; Dye M11

 

Method

The following paper has considerable interest.

A main objective of restoration and afforestation at post-mining sites is establishing a long-term sustainable ecosystem which depends on adaptations of tree species and which in turn depends on the soil nutrient flux.

The nutrient concentration (nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, and sulfur (S)) of Scots pine needles was investigated in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) located at the following post-mining sites: a sand mine pit, spoil heap from a lignite mine, spoil heap from a S mine, and a carbonaceous spoil heap from an underground coal mine.

The control plots were arranged on natural forest sites adjacent to the post-mining sites. A higher level of foliar nutrients was noted in the carbonaceous RMS, while lower levels were found in RMS on the spoil heap following lignite mining. The characteristics of the substrate were found to exert greater effect than mineral fertilization (performed at the onset of reclamation) on the tree stand characteristics, needle length and foliar nutrient concentration.

While the soils and trees were most deficient in N, negative symptoms have not been noted to this date in tree stands at reclaimed mine sites. Trophic ratings were recommended based on statistical correlations and groupings between N and P contents in needles and needles length (mean length of 300 needles) while nutrient ratings were recommended from statistical differences and groupings of the RMS substrates. PMID: 23404547

Note that needles at toxic sites containing lead or other heavy metals may well be toxic too.

References and further reading

More information on the IUCN Red List entry - LINK

 

Related observations