Some science behind the scenes

Sucrose

Sucrose, commonly named sugar or table sugar, is cane and beet sugar. Fructose, or fruit sugar, found in many plants, is often bonded to glucose to form sucrose. Sucrose is then a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose.

A description of how fructose is processed by the digestive system is provided in Fructose and sucrose digestion.

Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. Minor commercial sugar crops include the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Sucrose is obtained by extraction of these crops with hot water, concentration of the extract gives syrups, from which solid sucrose can be crystallized. In 2013, worldwide production of table sugar amounted to 175 million tonnes.

I have provided a list below from the USDA National nutrients database to provide more precise information on which foods it is found in.  In the list that follows I have excluded a number of food types as the USDA database contains over 2000 products that include sugar.  In general I have tried to exclude manufactured items, as most are only available in the USA and the food labelling normally tells you if sucrose is in the product anyway.  Food types excluded which are known to contain sucrose, often in quite large amounts, include : 

  • breakfast cereals;
  • ice cream - ice cream contains sugar
  • meat stuffings - for all meats - turkey, chicken, pork, lamb etc
  • baby foods - often contain sugar;
  • catsups and other ketchups
  • dips
  • various mustards
  • pickles – some sweet pickles – piccalilli for example
  • chutneys - all chutneys contain sugars as this is what preserves them
  • canned fruit, which is usually canned in fruit and sugar syrup
  • soft drinks - colas, pops, ginger ale and other fizzy sweetened drinks;
  • yoghurts - those containing fruit or those which are sweetened
  • fast foods;
  • ready meals - numerous ready meals contain sugars including salads such as coleslaw;
  • restaurant foods;
  • dehydrated or canned vegetables - sugars are added to act as preservatives
  • frozen vegetables – freezing vegetables may cause degradation in the taste of the vegetable and then sugar may be added to ‘enhance’ their taste
  • snacks - crisps/chips, pretzels etc;
  • ready-made soups - tomato soup for example contains sugars
  • sauces and gravies - which often contain a surprisingly large amount of sugar.  Included in this is not just sweet sauces, which are an obvious source, but sauces such as horseradish sauce or the various tomato sauces for pasta;
  • salad dressings, which again can often contain large amounts of sugars;
  • sweets  - which by definition contain sugars. 

For those who think some cereals are 'healthy' it might be of interest to know that Kellogg's raisin bran [as an example] contains 12g of sugars for every 100g of cereal.

Foods with little or no sucrose

Dairy products  - Simple unprocessed dairy products are sucrose free.  Thus cheese - cheddar, cottage, cream, mozzarella, parmesan, queso, Neufchatel; cream – sour, cultured, ordinary; milk; yoghurt are all sucrose free.  Some cream cheeses are sweetened, but cream cheese is normally without sucrose; something called ‘swiss cheese’ [which does not exist in Switzerland] is a processed cheese to which the American manufacturers add sugar.

It also appears the Americans have no access to milk - in other words milk from the cow.  All their milk is processed with things taken out and things stuffed in -  and the processing appears to add sugars to the milk.

Eggs – fresh unprocessed hen and duck eggs are sucrose free

Herbs – dried herbs in the USA appear to be processed using sucrose and are not sucrose free, but fresh basil, for example, is sucrose free and so are many other fresh herbs.

Fresh Spices – the USA appears to process its spices using sugar. The difference may be that the spices found are ground and grinding tends to cause more rapid deterioration in the spice.  The sugar is possibly added to slow the process.  Many whole spices appear to contain little if no sucrose.

Vinegars – cider vinegar and balsamic vinegar, although not fructose free, are sucrose free

Raw plain meat – Turkey, chicken, beef, pork, veal, duck, venison are all sucrose free.  Some hams contain sucrose, some don’t, it depends on the curing process.  There is one oddity in the USA where some turkeys appear to be being sugar coated or processed in sugar – perhaps for the holiday season. Natural turkey meat contains no sucrose [according to the tables]

Processed meat – In general processed meat contains a great deal of sucrose – hamburgers, chicken nuggets, luncheon meat and meatballs may all have added sugar.  Ham may or may not contain sugar, it depends on the curing process.  The same is true of bacon.  Sausages are usually sugar free, though they may contain other preservatives.  Salami is not sugar free.

But some processed meat - brockwirst, pepperoni, and pastrami is sucrose free, though it may not be fructose free.

Fruits – wild blueberries - commercially produced blueberries appear to have sucrose in them but wild blueberries don’t; avocados – this entry is very unclear in the USDA – seem to depend on the type of avocado, as avocados are listed as both having sucrose and not having sucrose; raw papayas and pomegranates have no sucrose, but do have fructose.

Beverages – most American beers do not contain sucrose, although they might contain other sugars and sweeteners, no European or Asian etc beers are listed.  Tea, coffee and chocolate are sucrose free in their unadulterated ‘raw’ form, although fairly obviously chocolate bars and drinking chocolate are not sucrose free.  Dry dessert wine is listed as being sucrose free, note that sweet dessert wine is not sucrose free.  The sugars are converted into alcohol which is why these alcoholic beverages are sucrose free.

Seeds – seeds in general do not contain sucrose, even sprouting seeds like alfalfa.  Seeds only contain sucrose if they have been processed, for example, roasted and then sprayed with sugars

Raw Vegetables – a number of raw vegetables have no sucrose – cauliflower, cucumber and lettuce [most sorts], for example.  They may contain fructose.  How much sugar a vegetable contains is dependent on how long it has been picked.  New potatoes straight out of the ground are so sweet they are almost like a fruit.  Baby, freshly picked carrots are much the same.  The longer out of the ground a vegetable is, the more 'starchy' it becomes and thus measuring the sugar content of vegetables is fraught with problems.  Most vegetables contain sugars.  Onions, peas, carrots and sweetcorn contain more sugars in general than most. 

Mushrooms – shiitake, chanterelle, morel, portabella, white, enoki, oyster, maitake, etc are sucrose free

Tomatoes – some canned varieties of tomatoes including tomato paste do contain sucrose, but a number of tomato products do not, according to the tables, although they will contain fructose, for example:

  • Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw
  • Tomatoes, red, ripe, cooked
  • Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, packed in tomato juice
  • Tomato juice, canned, with salt added but no sugar
  • Tomato products, canned, puree, without salt or sugar added

Peppers – there appears to be some confusing information regarding peppers.  Raw green peppers are listed in both the section of those foods containing sucrose and the section of those containing no sucrose.  Sweet red raw red peppers are according to the USDA sucrose free, as are raw jalapeno peppers

Pickles – a number of pickles are listed as having no sucrose including cucumber, dill, and kosher dill, but they may have fructose

Raw fish and shellfish – all raw, unprocessed fish and shellfish is sucrose free including flatfish, salmon, crab, lobster, shrimp, prawn, clam, oyster, scallop and so on.  This is not true of processed fish including fish fingers

Soy products – Miso and soy sauce are sucrose free

Bakery products –  The vast majority of bakery products contain sucrose – sugar – for example many pastries, crackers, 'cookies', biscuits, pancakes, bagels, pies, muffins, rolls, sponges, cakes and some sweet breads often contain fructose and sucrose; even tacos, rolls and pizzas can contain sugar.

But a very small number of breads and crackers are sucrose free, although they may not be fructose free – care is needed here.  Naan bread, for example, appears to be sucrose free from the charts; some [not all] tortillas appear to be sucrose free

Sweeteners – the natural sugar syrup from agaves is sucrose free

Rice – it appears that American manufacturers parboil, boil or process a considerable amount of the rice for the American market – both long grain and not, both wholegrain and not.  This processed rice often contains added sucrose.  Wild rice is not actually a rice, but a sort of grass and contains sucrose, this can be seen from the table.

There is confusing evidence as regards brown rice.  It appears that the bran in brown rice does contain sucrose and thus even raw unprocessed brown rice contains sucrose.  In contrast, white rice whether long grain or short grain, because it has been stripped of its bran is sucrose free

Pasta - the majority of pasta, including noodles, contains no sucrose.  In the USA it appears manufacturers do add sugar to pasta, particularly macaroni and spaghetti, a process which does not seem to take place in Europe.

Nuts - the majority of simple plain unprocessed nuts, blanched or with their skins on, contain no sugar or only trace amounts.  The exceptions appear to be pistachio nuts, cashew nuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pecans, pine nuts and macademia nuts.  But the problems with the USDA tables are that it is very unclear whether these have been processed or not.  Dry roasting adds sugar, frying appears to be a process involving sugar.  Some of the nut butters have added sugar.  But a nut can appear in the list of products with no sugar and with sugar, as such it is clearly a processing issue and the overall information is very unclear, in this instant you have to read the packet labelling.

Foods with sugars - sucrose

As you can see from the following chart sucrose can be found in table sugar, honey, molasses and maple syrup, as well as fruit and some vegetable fruits.  Dried fruit contains more sugars per gram than fresh fruits.

Smoothies, though not listed are thus a source of considerable amount of sucrose and fructose.

NDB_No

Description

Sucrose (g)
Value Per

19335

Sugars, granulated

99.80

19908

Sugar, turbinado

99.19

19334

Sugars, brown

94.56

19911

Syrup, maple, Canadian

58.93

19353

Syrups, maple

58.32

12116

Nuts, coconut cream, canned, sweetened

51.50

19907

Sweeteners, for baking, contains sugar and sucralose

47.05

19902

Chocolate, dark, 45- 59% cacao solids

46.25

19903

Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids

36.39

12109

Dessicated coconut and flaked coconut

36.21

19304

Molasses

29.40

19904

Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids

23.99

09087

Dates, deglet noor

23.84

09246

Peaches, dried, sulfured, uncooked

15.42

09428

Rowal, raw

12.50

16098

Peanut butter, smooth style

10.25

11910

Corn, sweet, white, frozen, kernels cut off cob, unprepared

8.50

09032

Apricots, dried, sulfured, uncooked

7.89

09176

Mangos, raw

6.97

12151

Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw

6.87

09430

Pineapple, raw, extra sweet variety

6.47

09218

Tangerines, (mandarin oranges), raw

6.05

09266

Pineapple, raw, all varieties

5.99

09433

Clementines, raw

5.96

09021

Apricots, raw

5.87

12087

Nuts, cashew nuts, raw

5.81

11811

Peas, green, cooked, boiled, drained

5.22

11304

Peas, green, raw

4.99

09191

Nectarines, raw

4.87

09236

Peaches, raw

4.76

11312

Peas, green, frozen, unprepared

4.60

09429

Pineapple, raw, traditional varieties

4.59

12062

Nuts, almonds, blanched

4.46

12131

Nuts, macadamia nuts, raw

4.43

09181

Melons, cantaloupe, raw

4.35

09202

Oranges, raw, navels

4.28

12120

Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts

4.20

16097

Peanut butter, chunk style

4.19

02029

Spices, parsley, dried

4.09

09314

Sapote, mamey, raw

4.09

12061

Nuts, almonds

3.95

11172

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, whole kernel, drained solids

3.90

12142

Nuts, pecans

3.90

02026

Spices, onion powder

3.87

02024

Spices, mustard seed, ground

3.69

11124

Carrots, raw

3.59

09112

Grapefruit, raw, pink and red, all areas

3.51

16145

Beans, red, kidney, mature seeds, canned, drained solids

3.47

12147

Nuts, pine nuts, dried

3.45

12121

Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts, blanched

3.35

16037

Beans, navy, mature seeds, raw

3.33

09334

Feijoa, raw

2.93

11176

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, vacuum pack, regular pack

2.93

09503

Apples, raw, gala, with skin

2.78

11960

Carrots, baby, raw

2.72

11507

Sweet potato, raw, unprepared

2.52

12036

Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, dried

2.50

09184

Melons, honeydew, raw

2.48

12155

Nuts, walnuts, english

2.43

09040

Bananas, raw

2.39

02043

Spices, turmeric, ground

2.38

09446

Plantains, green, fried

2.36

02033

Spices, poppy seed

2.33

12078

Nuts, brazilnuts, dried, unblanched

2.33

09504

Apples, raw, fuji, with skin

2.21

09414

Pears, raw, bosc

2.11

09003

Apples, raw, with skin

2.07

09501

Apples, raw, golden delicious, with skin

2.07

02020

Spices, garlic powder

2.05

16042

Beans, pinto, mature seeds, raw

1.98

09502

Apples, raw, granny smith, with skin

1.93

09500

Apples, raw, red delicious, with skin

1.86

16034

Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids

1.85

20063

Rye flour, dark

1.80

20011

Buckwheat flour, whole-groat

1.70

09279

Plums, raw

1.57

09263

Persimmons, japanese, raw

1.54

16069

Lentils, raw

1.47

11510

Sweet potato, cooked, boiled, without skin

1.43

20001

Amaranth grain, uncooked

1.40

07005

Blood sausage

1.30

09326

Watermelon, raw

1.21

12220

Seeds, flaxseed

1.15

11211

Edamame, frozen, unprepared

1.13

12014

Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, dried

1.13

12154

Nuts, walnuts, black, dried

1.00

11282

Onions, raw

0.99

02027

Spices, oregano, dried

0.91

20064

Rye flour, medium

0.90

11167

Corn, sweet, yellow, raw

0.89

19296

Honey

0.89

20036

Rice, brown, long-grain, raw

0.85

09004

Apples, raw, without skin

0.82

02028

Spices, paprika

0.81

09063

Cherries, sour, red, raw

0.80

02009

Spices, chili powder

0.76

11294

Onions, sweet, raw

0.72

09252

Pears, raw

0.71

20062

Rye grain

0.71

20522

Cornmeal, cornflour, white

0.68

20088

Wild rice, raw

0.67

09062

Cherimoya, raw

0.66

02015

Spices, curry powder

0.62

09084

Currants, red and white, raw

0.61

11112

Cabbage, red, raw

0.60

11278

Okra, raw

0.60

20140

Spelt, uncooked

0.59

09129

Grapes, muscadine, raw

0.57

20065

Rye flour, light

0.57

09421

Dates, medjool

0.53

11435

Rutabagas, raw

0.53

20060

Rice bran, crude

0.50

09160

Lime juice, raw

0.48

20420

Spaghetti, dry, unenriched

0.48

20499

Macaroni, dry, unenriched

0.48

09316

Strawberries, raw

0.47

20648

Sorghum flour, whole-grain

0.47

11098

Brussels sprouts, raw

0.46

09298

Raisins, seedless

0.45

11358

Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, baked

0.45

11905

Corn, sweet, white, canned, whole kernel, drained solids

0.45

07069

Salami, cooked, beef and pork

0.44

09152

Lemon juice, raw

0.43

09412

Pears, raw, bartlett

0.43

09144

Jackfruit, raw

0.42

11357

Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, baked

0.40

11356

Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked

0.39

35198

Prickly pears, raw (Northern Plains Indians)

0.38

11052

Beans, snap, green, raw

0.36

20080

Wheat flour, whole-grain

0.36

09415

Pears, raw, green anjou

0.33

12201

Seeds, sesame seed kernels, dried (decorticated)

0.31

11887

Tomato products, canned paste

0.30

20647

Millet flour

0.30

11355

Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, raw

0.29

11354

Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, raw

0.28

09413

Pears, raw, red anjou

0.26

11209

Eggplant, raw

0.26

20409

Noodles, egg, dry, unenriched

0.26

07072

Salami, dry or hard, pork, beef

0.25

11011

Asparagus, raw

0.23

11485

Squash, winter, butternut, raw

0.22

02046

Mustard, prepared, yellow

0.21

11395

Potatoes, french fried, shoestring, salt added in processing, frozen, oven-heated

0.21

02021

Spices, ginger, ground

0.20

09302

Raspberries, raw

0.20

11352

Potatoes, flesh and skin, raw

0.17

11360

Potatoes, french fried, crinkle or regular cut, salt added in processing, frozen, oven-heated

0.17

11292

Onions, young green, tops only

0.16

35200

Prairie Turnips, raw (Northern Plains Indians)

0.16

09070

Cherries, sweet, raw

0.15

09132

Grapes, red or green (European type, such as Thompson seedless), raw

0.15

09148

Kiwifruit, green, raw

0.15

09291

Plums, dried (prunes), uncooked

0.15

09078

Cranberries, raw

0.13

11353

Potatoes, russet, flesh and skin, raw

0.13

09050

Blueberries, raw

0.11

11096

Broccoli raab, raw

0.11

11090

Broccoli, raw

0.10

11429

Radishes, raw

0.10

16123

Soy sauce made from soy and wheat (shoyu)

0.10

11109

Cabbage, raw

0.08

11143

Celery, raw

0.08

20044

Rice, white, long-grain, regular, raw

0.08

05165

Turkey, whole, meat and skin, raw

0.07

09042

Blackberries, raw

0.07

09094

Figs, dried, uncooked

0.07

11457

Spinach, raw

0.07

35202

Raspberries, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

0.07

35203

Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

0.07

35204

Chokecherries, raw, pitted (Northern Plains Indians)

0.07

35206

Plums, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

0.07

09037

Avocados, raw, all commercial varieties

0.06

11467

Squash, summer, crookneck and straightneck, raw

0.06

09427

Abiyuch, raw

0.05

09445

Kiwifruit, gold, raw

0.05

11252

Lettuce, iceberg (includes crisphead types), raw

0.05

11477

Squash, summer, zucchini, includes skin, raw

0.05

14057

Alcoholic beverage, wine, dessert, sweet

0.05

11205

Cucumber, with peel, raw

0.03

11641

Squash, summer, all varieties, raw

0.03

15089

Fish, sardine, Pacific, canned in tomato sauce, drained solids with bone

0.03

02003

Spices, basil, dried

0.02

02010

Spices, cinnamon, ground

0.02

02011

Spices, cloves, ground

0.02

02030

Spices, pepper, black

0.02

11533

Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, stewed

0.02

11693

Tomatoes, crushed, canned

0.02

35015

Blackberries, wild, raw (Alaska Native)

0.01

 As an alternative source of informmation I have also included the tables from Dr Duke's plant database for comparison.

Plants Containing SUCROSE according to Dr Duke’s plant database

Ordered by quantity

Species

Part

Quantity

Asimina triloba (L.) DUNAL -- Pawpaw

Fruit

545,000 ppm

Phoenix dactylifera L. -- Date Palm

Fruit

400,000 ppm

Vanilla planifolia JACKS. -- Bourbon Vanilla, Vanilla

Fruit

350,000 ppm

Daucus carota L. -- Carrot

Root

339,000 ppm

Pisum sativum L. -- Pea

Seed

280,000 ppm

Annona squamosa L. -- Sugar-Apple, Sweetsop

Fruit

272,500 ppm

Beta vulgaris subsp. subsp. vulgaris -- Beet, Beetroot, Garden Beet, Sugar Beet

Root

270,000 ppm

Castanea sativa MILLER -- European Chestnut

Seed

216,000 ppm

Zizyphus jujuba MILL. -- Da-Zao, Jujube, Ta-Tsao

Fruit

208,000 ppm

Spondias dulcis FORST. -- Ambarella

Fruit

200,000 ppm

Eleocharis dulcis (BURM. F) TRIN. -- Water chestnut

Tuber

63,500-317,500 ppm

Polypodium vulgare L. -- Common Polypody, Sweet Fern

Rhizome

155,000 ppm

Ananas comosus (L.) MERR. -- Pineapple

Fruit

150,000 ppm

Allium cepa L. -- Onion, Shallot

Bulb

145,900 ppm

Paeonia officinalis L. -- Double Peony

Root

140,000 ppm

Cocos nucifera L. -- Coconut, Coconut Palm, Cocotero (Sp.), Copra, Kokospalme (Ger.), Nariyal

Resin, Exudate, Sap

134,000 ppm

Mangifera indica L. -- Mango

Fruit

125,800 ppm

Musa x paradisiaca L. -- Banana, Plantain

Fruit

119,000 ppm

Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH -- Peach

Fruit

100,000 ppm

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. -- Commom Licorice, Licorice, Licorice-Root, Smooth Licorice

Root

90,000 ppm

Panax quinquefolius L. -- American Ginseng, Ginseng

Plant

85,000 ppm

Rehmannia glutinosa (GAERTN.) LIBOSCH. -- Chinese Foxglove

Root

81,000 ppm

Lycoris radiata HERB. -- Spider Lily

Bulb

73,200 ppm

Glycine max (L.) MERR. -- Soybean

Seed

71,700 ppm

Nicotiana tabacum L. -- Tobacco

Leaf

70,000 ppm

Prunus armeniaca L. -- Apricot

Fruit

54,000 ppm

Corylus avellana L. -- Cobnut, English Filbert, European Filbert, European Hazel, Hazel

Seed

50,000 ppm

Prunus domestica L. -- Plum

Fruit

48,000 ppm

Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK -- Orange

Fruit

47,000 ppm

Nelumbo nucifera L. -- Water Lotus

Fruit

45,556 ppm

Manilkara zapota VAN ROYEN -- Sapodilla

Fruit

14,800-87,500 ppm

Phoenix dactylifera L. -- Date Palm

Seed

38,200 ppm

Malus domestica BORKH. -- Apple

Fruit

36,200 ppm

Ruscus aculeatus L. -- Box-Holly, Butcher's Broom

Root

36,000 ppm

Pistacia vera L. -- Pistachio

Seed

32,600 ppm

Rosa canina L. -- Dog Rose, Dogbrier, Rose

Fruit

32,100 ppm

Spondias pinnata L. -- Yellow Mombin, Yellow Plum

Fruit

29,000 ppm

Mammea americana L. -- Mamey

Fruit

0-55,000 ppm

Nelumbo nucifera L. -- Water Lotus

Rhizome

25,309 ppm

Physalis ixocarpa BROT. -- Tomatillo

Fruit

25,060 ppm

Piper betel L. -- Betel Pepper

Leaf

25,000 ppm

Phytelephas aequatorialis SPRUCE -- EQUATORIAL IVORY PALM

Seed

5,600-45,565 ppm

Citrus paradisi MacFAD. -- Grapefruit

Fruit

21,400 ppm

Ginkgo biloba L. -- Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree

Wood

20,000 ppm

Zea mays L. -- Corn

Fruit

19,000 ppm

Vigna radiata (L.) WILCZEK -- Green Gram, Mungbean

Seed

18,000 ppm

Pinus sylvestris L. -- Scotch Pine

Leaf

17,000 ppm

Vigna mungo (L.) HEPPER -- Black Gram

Seed

16,000 ppm

Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) VERDC. -- Asparagus Bean, Pea Bean, Yardlong Bean

Seed

15,000 ppm

Cucurbita pepo L. -- Pumpkin

Seed

14,000 ppm

Phyllanthus emblica L. -- Emblic, Myrobalan

Fruit

12,970 ppm

Cucurbita foetidissima HBK. -- Buffalo Gourd

Seed

0-23,000 ppm

Arnica montana L. -- Leopard's-Bane, Mountain Tobacco

Rhizome

10,000 ppm

Terminalia chebula RETZ. -- Black Myrobalan, Chebulic Myrobalan, Ink Nut, Myrobalan

Fruit

10,000 ppm

Triticum aestivum L. -- Wheat

Seed

8,400 ppm

Teucrium montanum L. -- Mountain Germander

Leaf

0-16,000 ppm

Ribes uva-crispa L. -- Gooseberry

Fruit

7,100 ppm

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. -- Alholva (Sp.), Bockshornklee (Ger.), Fenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay

Seed

1,200-12,700 ppm

Ribes nigrum L. -- Black Currant

Fruit

6,200 ppm

Citrus mitis BLANCO -- Calamansi, Calamondin

Jf

0-11,000 ppm

Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus LODD. -- Cowberry, Lingen, Lingonberry

Fruit

5,300 ppm

Oryza sativa L. -- Rice

Seed

4,800 ppm

Ginkgo biloba L. -- Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree

Seed

3,600 ppm

Hippophae rhamnoides L. -- Sallow Thorn, Sea Buckthorn, Yellow Spine

Fruit

1,000-5,000 ppm

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. -- Acedera de Guinea (Sp.), Indian Sorrel, Jamaica Sorrel, Kharkadi, Malventee (Ger.), Red Sorrel, Rosa de Jamaica (Sp.), Rosella (Ger.), Roselle, Sereni (Sp.), Sorrel

Calyx

2,400 ppm

Ficus carica L. -- Echte Feige (Ger.), Feigenbaum (Ger.), Fico (Ital.), Fig, Figueira (Port.), Figuier Commun (Fr.), Higo (Sp.), Higuera Comun (Sp.)

Fruit

2,250 ppm

Ribes rubrum L. -- Red Currant, White Currant

Fruit

1,500 ppm

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. -- Alholva (Sp.), Bockshornklee (Ger.), Fenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay

Fruit

400-2,500 ppm

Withania somnifera (L.) DUNAL -- Ashwagandha

Root

1,000 ppm

Phytelephas aequatorialis SPRUCE -- EQUATORIAL IVORY PALM

Mesocarp

0-1 ppm

 

 

Observations

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