Some science behind the scenes


SRAs are serotonin releasing agents.  These drugs induce the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.  They include a whole raft of legal and illegal drugs marketed as anything from appetite suppressants, to analgesic,’neuroprotectives’ [sic], and so called ‘recreational drugs’.  Some drugs discontinued by the drug companies due to health appear to continue to be used recreationally.

  • Fenfluramine (Pondimin, Fen-Phen),  Chlorphentermine (Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen)  and Aminorex - were used as appetite suppressants but they were discontinued due to concerns of cardiac valvulopathy. This side effect has been attributed not only to their action as SRAs but due to potent agonism of the 5-HT2B receptor as well
  • MDMA, MDEA, MDA, and MBDB, among other relatives (see MDxx), - act as releasing agents of not only serotonin, but of dopamine and norepinephrine as well, and also agonize serotonin receptors such as 5-HT2A.
  • DMT, psilocin, and bufotenin -  are SRAs as well as non-selective serotonin receptor agonists.
  • Tramadol - in addition to its opioid and norepinephrine reuptake-inhibiting effects, is an SRA and is used as an analgesic.
  • Indeloxazine is an SRA and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used as a “neuroprotective” [sic].
  • Cloforex (Oberex; prodrug to chlorphentermine) - is an anorectic – appetite suppressant
  • Dexfenfluramine (Redux) (enantiomer of fenfluramine) - a serotonergic anorectic drug
  • Etolorex  - prodrug to chlorphentermine; never marketed, sold recreationally
  • Levofenfluramine (enantiomer of fenfluramine) - is a drug of the amphetamine family that  was never marketed, sold recreationally despite health problems
  • Others - A very very large number of so called Research Chemicals have also been developed under this heading including 2-Methyl-MDA; MMA; 5-Methyl-MDA; PMA; PMMA; 5-APDB; MMAI; MDAI; 6-CAT; MDAT; ETAI; IMP


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