Some science behind the scenes

Nail–patella syndrome

Nail–patella syndrome (NPS)  - is a genetic disorder that results in small, poorly developed nails and kneecaps, but can also affect many other areas of the body, such as the elbows, chest, and hips. The name "nail–patella" can be very misleading because the syndrome often affects many other areas of the body, including even the production of certain proteins.  It is also referred to as iliac horn syndrome, hereditary onychoosteodysplasia (HOOD syndrome), Fong disease or Turner–Kieser syndrome.  The Nail–patella syndrome is inherited via autosomal dominancy linked to aberrancy on human chromosome 9's q arm (the longer arm), 9q34. This autosomal dominancy means that only a single copy, instead of both, is sufficient for the disorder to be expressed in the offspring.  The disorder is linked to the ABO blood group locus. It is associated with mutations in the LMX1B gene. Studies have been conducted and 83 mutations of this gene have been identified.