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Introduction and description
A dental filling is a material used to fill a cavity in a tooth or mend a broken tooth. In addition to fillings themselves, other tooth repair and replacement methods include crowns, bridges and dentures [full or partial].
The prepared tooth, ready for placement of restorative materials, is generally called a tooth preparation. Materials used may be
- Amalgam - is an alloy of mercury (50%), silver (~22-32% ), tin (~14%), copper (~8%), and other trace metals.
- Dental composites - are made of synthetic resin and are often called white fillings. Their strength and durability is not as high as porcelain or metal restorations and they are more prone to wear and discolouration. A dental composite typically consists of a resin-based matrix, such as a bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (BISMA) resin like urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and an inorganic filler such as silica.
- Titanium - usually commercially pure but sometimes a 90% alloyis used as the anchor for dental implants as it is biocompatible and can integrate into bone.
- Precious metallic alloys - for example
- gold (high purity: 99.7%)
- gold alloys (with high gold content)
- gold-platina alloy
- silver-palladium alloy
- Base metallic alloys - for example
- cobalt-chrome alloy
- nickel-chrome alloy
- Glass ionomer cement – is used as a filling material and luting cement. These materials are based on the reaction of silicate glass powder and polyalkenoic acid. These tooth-coloured materials were introduced in 1972 for use as restorative materials for anterior teeth. They bond chemically to dental hard tissues and release fluoride.
- Full-porcelain dental materials - include Dental porcelain (porcelain meaning a high-firing-temperature ceramic), other ceramics, sintered-glass materials, and glass-ceramics as indirect fillings and crowns or metal-free "jacket crowns".
- Zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2). Because of its high strength and comparatively much higher fracture toughness, sintered zirconium-oxide may be used in posterior crowns and bridges, implant abutments, and root dowel pins.
- Lithium disilicate - a ceramic crystallizing from a glass by special heat treatment It has the fracture resistance needed for use on molars.
“Cast metals and porcelain-on-metal are currently the standard material for crowns and bridges. The demand for full ceramic solutions, however, continues to grow”.
And they have caused out of body experiences, hallucinations various other forms of 'psychoses' and in some cases illness.
Practically all these materials are crystalline in structure. If you turn to the section Using crystals and crystal balls, you will see that crystals have a number of interesting properties, the principle one being that under mechanical stress they can produce a small electric current.
As teeth are also crystalline, teeth themselves can produce electric current if ground together.
Thus if you grind your teeth on a regular basis - at night for example, or when stressed, you will be generating a continual small but significant electric current.
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, a common disorder of the jaw and characterised by pain, clicking and limitation of mandibular movement, may be one by-product of this effect.
If, furthermore, you grind away your fillings, you are filling your body with an interesting array of heavy metals, resins, ceramics and so on.
The so-called 'dental amalgam controversy' refers to the conflicting views over the use of amalgam as a filling material mainly because it contains the element mercury. According to Wikipedia:
“Scientists agree that dental amalgam fillings leach mercury into the mouth, but studies vary widely in the amount and whether such amount presents significant health risks. Estimations run from 1-3 micrograms (µg) per day (FDA) up to 27 µg/day (Patterson).”
If you have an extremely sensitive immune system, it will detect this amount and a number of
autoimmune diseases have been linked with dental fillings - particularly those containing heavy metals.
Norway, Denmark and Sweden have banned the use of mercury in dental amalgams over environmental concerns, and in Sweden's case also from concerns over its effect on human health. One of the rather bizarre problems of mercury based fillings is that when people die and are cremated, the mercury is vaporised and becomes an air pollutant – measurable downwind of crematoriums.
How it works
There are more than one way in which hallucinations etc can be obtained from dental fillings
1. Electrical discharge - The electric current, even though tiny, may travel through the facial nerves and affect various organs in the brain. It is a somewhat bizarre form of Stimulation of trigger points in that it is highly targeted. One of the deliberate methods used in yoga is Teeth clenching and chattering, chattering induces a mild electric current and trance states, whereas clenching very hard blocks the nerve from overload and produces pain relief.
2. Heavy metal poisoning - the controversy may continue to rage, but I have an observation which shows that some people develop illnesses and have allergic reactions to the metals in fillings - all sorts of metals not just amalgam. I suspect, but do not know, that these individuals are as hyper sensitive to all other sorts of toxins, bacteria, viruses and other foreign bodies and are prone to any number of autoimmune diseases.
References and further reading
"Dental Amalgam: Myths vs. Facts" (Press release). American Dental Association. July 2002.
Koral, Stephen M. (2005). "The Scientific Case Against Amalgam". International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology.
Eyeson J, House I, Yang YH, Warnakulasuriya KA - Relationship between mercury levels in blood and urine and complaints of chronic mercury toxicity from amalgam restorations. - This paper is a wonderful example of bad science, but shows how bad science simply reinforces innaccurate reporting. The study group were 56 patients; analysis showed subjects with “oral lesions, autoimmune disorders and multiple sclerosis had relatively and significantly higher mercury levels within this cohort” - but the paper then says these levels were “within the threshold values.” Now I would have concluded the threshold levels were wrong, but our paper authors did not. I might also have recommended that whoever set the threshold levels needed to have his goollies shot off [sorry I'm joking – or maybe I'm not] PMID: 20186178
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