Vitamin D deficiency and psychosis
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Schizophr Res. 2013 Nov;150(2-3):533-7. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.036. Epub 2013 Sep 20. Vitamin D deficiency in first episode psychosis: a case-control study. Crews M, Lally J, Gardner-Sood P, Howes O, Bonaccorso S, Smith S, Murray RM, Di Forti M, Gaughran F.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is seen in a high proportion of people with established psychotic disorders, but it is not known if this is present at onset of the illness. We set out to examine vitamin D levels in people with their first episode of psychosis (FEP).
METHOD: We conducted a matched case-control study to examine vitamin D levels and rates of vitamin D deficiency in sixty nine patients presenting with their FEP and sixty nine controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity. Differences between groups were tested using student's-t tests, paired t-tests and odds ratios for further analysis.
RESULTS: Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls (p<0.001). The odds ratio of being vitamin D deficient was 2.99 in the FEP group relative to the control group. There was no correlation between vitamin D levels and length of hospitalisation in the patient group (r=-0.027, p=0.827).
CONCLUSIONS: We found higher rates of vitamin D deficiency in people with FEP compared to matched controls. Given that vitamin D is neuroprotective; that developmental vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for psychosis, and that incipient psychosis may affect lifestyle factors and diet, future studies are required to examine this association further. In the meantime, there is a need for more widespread testing of vitamin D levels in FEP and for the development of appropriate management strategies.
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Case–control study, Ethnicity, First episode psychosis, Schizophrenia, Vitamin D deficiency