Topical anti-inflammatory constituents of lipophilic leaf fractions of Alchornea floribunda and Alchornea cordifolia
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Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1941-9. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.512272. Epub 2011 Jun 27.
Topical anti-inflammatory constituents of lipophilic leaf fractions of Alchornea floribunda and Alchornea cordifolia.
Okoye FB1, Osadebe PO, Nworu CS, Okoye NN, Omeje EO, Esimone CO.
The leaves of Alchornea floribunda and Alchornea cordifolia are used traditionally as topical anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, two highly lipophilic fractions AFLF and ACLF isolated from A. floribunda and A. cordifolia leaves respectively were investigated for topical anti-inflammatory effects using xylene-induced mice ear oedema as a model of inflammation. AFLF and ACLF at 5 mg per ear showed significant (p < 0.01) topical anti-inflammatory effect with oedema inhibitions of 64.0% and 79.0% at 2 h, respectively. When compared to indomethacin (5 mg per ear), these fractions showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher topical anti-inflammatory effect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that AFLF is composed mainly of long chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (18.78%) and their oxygenated derivatives (1.89%); while ACLF is rich in volatile oils eugenol (21.26%) and cadinol (4.76%), and other constituents like, nanocosaine (36.86%) and steroid derivatives, ethyl iso-allocholate (4.59%) and 3-acetoxy-7,8-epoxylanostan-1-ol (15.86%). Analysis of the volatile oil (ACV) extracted from the fresh leaves of A. cordifolia revealed the presence of high concentrations of eugenol (41.7%), cadinol (2.46%), Caryophylene (1.04%), Linalool (30.59%) and (E)-α-bergamotene (4.54%). These compounds could be contributing to the topical anti-inflammatory effects of A. floribunda and A. cordifolia leaf extracts.