Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials
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J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Aug 8;155(1):801-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.032. Epub 2014 Jun 23.
Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials.
Piwowarski JP1, Granica S2, Zwierzyńska M2, Stefańska J3, Schopohl P4, Melzig MF4, Kiss AK2.
- 1Department of Pharmacognosy and Molecular Basis of Phytotherapy, Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Molecular Basis of Phytotherapy, Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.
- 3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Oczki 3, 02-007 Warsaw, Poland.
- 4Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 2 and 4, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages.
The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from
- Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.),
- Geranium pratense L. herb,
- Geranium robertianum L. herb,
- Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome,
- Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.),
- Potentilla anserina L. herb,
- Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.),
- Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.),
- Rubus idaeus L. leaf,
- Rubus fruticosus L. and
- pure ellagitannin vescalagin.
Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition).
The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ellagitannins; Gut microbiota; Inflammation; SB-203580 (PubChem CID: 176155); Urolithin A (PubChem CID: 5488186); Urolithin B (PubChem CID: 5380406); Urolithin C (Reaxys registry number: 5050777); Urolithins