Outbreak of typhoid fever in vaccinated members of the French Armed Forces in the Ivory Coast
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20(7):635-42.
Outbreak of typhoid fever in vaccinated members of the French Armed Forces in the Ivory Coast.
Michel R1, Garnotel E, Spiegel A, Morillon M, Saliou P, Boutin JP.
Départment d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, Institut de Médecine Tropicale du Service de Santé des Armées, Marseille, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
In 2001, an outbreak of typhoid fever occurred among the members of the French Armed Forces. All had received a typhoid vaccination as per the immunization schedule practiced in the Armed Forces (every 5 years).
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 94 personnel. The objectives were to confirm the diagnosis, determine the source of contamination and identify the factors associated with defective vaccinal efficacy. Twenty-four cases were clinically identified.
A cucumber salad was identified as the contaminating dish (Risk Ratio = 3.6; 95%CI 1.5-8.9). Only one factor was related to defective vaccinal efficacy; the risk of typhoid fever was two-fold higher in people vaccinated more than 3 years previously (Risk Ratio = 2.2; 95%CI, 1.1-4.2).
Compliance with food hygiene rules could have prevented 24 cases of typhoid fever. Nevertheless, repeat vaccination against typhoid fever is now conducted every 3 years in the French Forces, in compliance with the manufacturers' recommendations.