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Observations placeholder

Liszt - Symphonic Poems - 12 Die Ideale



Type of Spiritual Experience


A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or illustrative element. This program may come from a poem, a story or novel, a painting, or another source. The term was first applied by Liszt to his 13 one-movement orchestral works in this vein. They were not pure symphonic movements in the classical sense because they dealt with descriptive subjects taken from mythology, Romantic literature, recent history or imaginative fantasy. In other words, these works were programmatic rather than abstract. The form was a direct product of Romanticism which encouraged literary, pictorial and dramatic associations in music. It developed into an important form of program music in the second half of the 19th century.

The symphonic poems of the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt are a series of 13 orchestral works, numbered S.95–107. The first 12 were composed between 1848 and 1858 (though some use material conceived earlier); the last, Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (From the Cradle to the Grave), followed in 1882. These works helped establish the genre of orchestral program music—compositions written to illustrate an extra-musical plan derived from a play, poem, painting or work of nature. They inspired the symphonic poems of Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, Richard Strauss and others.

In chronological order the symphonic poems are as follows, though the published numbering differs as shown:

  • No. 1 Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne, after Victor Hugo (1848–49; originally orchestrated by Joachim Raff, third orchestral version by Liszt, 1854)
  • No. 3 Les préludes, after Lamartine (1848) based on the prelude to the cantata Les quatre elements (1845)
  • No. 2 Tasso, Lamento e Trionfo, after Byron (1849 from earlier sketches, orchestrated by August Conradi and Raff; expanded and orchestrated by Liszt, 1854)
  • No. 5 Prometheus (1850, originally overture to Choruses from Herder's Prometheus Unbound)
  • No. 8 Héroïde funèbre (1849–50) (based on the first movement of the unfinished Revolutionary Symphony of 1830)
  • No. 6 Mazeppa, after Victor Hugo (1851)
  • No. 7 Festklänge (Festal Sounds) (1853)
  • No. 4 Orpheus (1853–4)
  • No. 9 Hungaria (1854)
  • No. 11 Hunnenschlacht (Battle of the Huns), after the painting by Kaulbach (1856–7)
  • No. 12 Die Ideale, after the poem by Schiller (1857)
  • No. 10 Hamlet, after the drama by Shakespeare (1858)
  • No. 13 Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (From the Cradle to the Grave) (1881–2)

Liszt attempted in the symphonic poem to extend this revitalisation of the nature of musical discourse and add to it the Romantic ideal of reconciling classical formal principles to external literary concepts. Their composition proved daunting, requiring a continual process of creative experimentation that included many stages of composition, rehearsal and revision to reach a version where different parts of the musical form seemed balanced.

When Liszt started writing symphonic poems, "he had very little experience in handling an orchestra ... his knowledge of the technique of instrumentation was defective and he had as yet composed hardly anything for the orchestra." For these reasons he relied first on his assistants August Conradi and Joachim Raff to fill the gaps in his knowledge and find his "orchestral voice"  Raff, "a gifted composer with an imaginative grasp of the orchestra", offered close assistance to Liszt.  Also helpful were the virtuosi present at that time in the Weimarian Court orchestra, such as trombonist Moritz Nabich, harpist Jeanne Pohl, concertmaster Joseph Joachim and violinist Edmund Singer. "[Liszt] mixed daily with these musicians, and their discussions must have been filled with 'shop talk.'”

A description of the experience

Liszt - Symphonic poem - Die Ideale (1/2)


Liszt - Symphonic poem - Die Ideale (2/2)

Die Ideale ("The Ideals"), S. 106, is a symphonic poem composed by Franz Liszt in 1856–1857 and published in 1858 as No. 12. It was first performed on 5 September 1857. Die Ideale was composed for the unveiling of a Goethe and Schiller monument on Sept. 5th, 1857. It was inspired by multiple passages of the poem of the same name by Schiller, which Liszt liberally rearranged to create a program to his liking

The Ideal and the Actual Life - Friedrich Schiller, circa 1790

Forever fair, forever calm and bright,
Life flies on plumage, zephyr-light,
For those who on the Olympian hill rejoice—
Moons wane, and races wither to the tomb,
And ‘mid the universal ruin, bloom

The rosy days of gods—With man, the choice,
Timid and anxious, hesitates between
The sense’s pleasure and the soul’s content;
While on celestial brows, aloft and sheen,
The beams of both are bent.

Seekest thou on earth the life of gods to share,
Safe in the realm of death?—beware
To pluck the fruits that glitter to thine eye;
Content thyself with gazing on their glow—
Short are the joys possession can bestow,
And in possession sweet desire will die…


The source of the experience

Liszt, Franz

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps