Fig leaves and liver damage from toxins
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Pharm Biol. 2010 Nov;48(11):1255-64. doi: 10.3109/13880201003730659. Epub 2010 Sep 14.
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Egyptian moraceous plants against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.
Singab AN1, Ayoub NA, Ali EN, Mostafa NM.
- 1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt. firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTEXT: In the absence of reliable liver-protective drugs in modern medicine, a large number of medicinal preparations are recommended for treatment of liver disorders.
OBJECTIVE: The antioxidant, hepatoprotective and kidney protective activities of methanol extracts of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) leaves and fruits and Morus alba Linn. root barks (Moraceae) are evaluated here.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver and kidney damage were induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride in a subcutaneous dose of 1 mL (40% v/v in corn oil)/kg. The extract was given intraperitoneally at doses of 50 mg/kg (F. carica leaf and M. alba root bark) and 150 mg/kg (F. carica fruit). The activity of the extracts was comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring blood glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein. These biochemical observations were supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring plasma urea and creatinine.
RESULTS: Methanol extracts of Ficus carica and Morus alba showed potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities; in-depth chromatographic investigation of the most active extract (Ficus carica leaf extract) resulted in identification of umbelliferone, caffeic acid, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the phenolic constituents of Ficus carica leaf and Morus alba root bark are responsible at least in part for the observed protective effects.