Observations placeholder

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Acorus calamus L. (Acoraceae) -- Calamus, Flagroot, Myrtle Flag, Sweet Calamus, Sweetflag, Sweetroot

Identifier

027981

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals

(+)-CALAMUSENONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1,8-CINEOLE Rhizome 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

2,4,5-TRIMETHOXYBENZALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,5-DIMETHOXYQUINONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,6-DIEPISHYOBUNONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACETEUGENOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACOLAMONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORADIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORAGERMACRONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORAMONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORENOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORENONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Hallucinogen DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ACORIN Plant 2,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORINE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACORONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ACOROXIDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-ASARONE Rhizome 132 - 6,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic PJB1(3):231 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=76 uM LAB58 IC50=87 uM gpg

ALPHA-HUMULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Perfumery JBH

ALPHA-PINENE Rhizome 280 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-TERPINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Rhizome 1,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-YLANGENE Rhizome 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANEURINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Tonic DUKE1992B

AR-CURCUMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antirhinoviral IC50=1,750? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC45=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,750? JNP57:658

ARISTOLENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ARSENIC Rhizome 1.13 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASARALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASARONALDEHYDE Rhizome 2,830 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASARYLALDEHYDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

AZULENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiallergic IWU ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL ; Antihistaminic CAN ; Antiinflammatory PEP ; Antipyretic HG20:40 ; Antiseptic 6-500 VAL ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antiulcer ED50=150 (orl) DUKE1992B ; Hepatoregenerative CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETA-ASARONE Rhizome 2,000 - 48,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Algicide JBH ; Anticoagulant AHP135 ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=63 uM LAB58 IC50=63.1 uM gpg K27796 IC50=87 uM gpg K17576 ; Carcinogenic 411 ; Cardiodepressant DUKE1992B ; Genotoxic AHP134 ; Hepatocarcinogenic AHP134 ; Insecticide JBH ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional M11 ; Larvicide 16 ppm POP ; Mutagenic AHP134 ; Nervine BIS ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tranquilizer BIS

BETA-CURCUMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-ELEMENE Rhizome 60 - 750 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-PINENE Rhizome 150 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BORNEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholine CAN ; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antibronchitic JBH ; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic X2364470 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antisalmonella X11559128 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128 ; Antiyeast X11559128 ; Candidicide X11559128 ; Choleretic X11559128 ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; CNS-Toxic JBH ; FLavor FEMA<1 ARC ; Fungicide X11559128 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX ; Inhalant JBH ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative MED ; Tranquilizer X11559128

BUTYRIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Anticancer WER ; Antitumor WER ; Apoptotic BOI ; Bruchifuge 382 ; Nematistat 880 ug/ml NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CADALO-1,4,9-TRIENE Rhizome 410 - 2,050 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALACOLENE Rhizome 100 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALACONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMENE Rhizome 384 - 1,920 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMENENE Rhizome 10 - 2,535 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMENOL Rhizome 1,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMENONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMEONE Rhizome 280 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALAMOL Rhizome 320 - 3,885 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALARENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Rhizome 7,040 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPHENE Rhizome 92 - 460 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CAMPHOR Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne NIG ; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml WO2 ; Antidysenteric WO2 ; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl KCH ; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antineuralgic MAR ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant JE26:74 ; Convulsant RJH ; Cosmetic JBH ; Counterirritant MAR ; Decongestant NIG ; Deliriant M11 ; Ecbolic DUKE1992B ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Epileptigenic CAN ; Expectorant M29 ; Fungicide ED50=2.7 mM TOX ; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM 438 ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge; Irritant JBH ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Occuloirritant M&R367 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM X9242356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor M11 ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rubefacient; Stimulant RJH ; Transdermal; Verrucolytic NIG ; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml WO2

CARYOPHYLLINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHOLINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CIS-ISOELEMICIN Rhizome 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

COPPER Rhizome 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CRYPTOACORONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-CADINENE Rhizome 5 - 1,050 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DELTA-CARENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELTA-GUAZULENE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEXTRIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEXTROSE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.74 x sucrose MAR

DIMETHYL-AMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Coleoptophile M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ELEMICIN Rhizome 10 - 650 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant IC50=360 uM JE29:184 ; Antidepressant ihl JA6(4):36 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiserotonic IJO15(4):199 ; Antistress JA6(4):36 ; DNA-Binder JBH ; Fungicide MIC=8 ug POP:25 ; Hallucinogenic RJH ; Hypotensive ihl JA6(4):36 ; Insecticide 100 ppm; Insectifuge 382 ; Larvicide POP:25 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Schistosomicide GMJ

ENANTHYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EO Rhizome 10,000 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPISHYOBUNONE Rhizome 402 - 2,010 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

EPOXYISOACORAGERMACRONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHANOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat BBE 6,000 orl rat BBE ; Anhydrotic M29 ; Antiatherosclerotic PMID11020457 ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antipruritic MAR ; Antiseptic M11 ; CNS-Depressant MAR ; Expectorant SHT ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypertensive >1 drink/day X7760897 ; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone M29 ; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat BBE ; Hypotensive 1 drink/day X7760897 ; Mucotropic SHT ; Neurolytic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Sclerosant M29 ; Surfactant SHT ; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog BBE ; Tremorilytic MAR ; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

EUGENOL Rhizome 84 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide LD50=5.47 ug/sq cm cf DEET at 37.59 ug/sq cm; Allergenic M&R488 ; Analgesic M11 ; Anesthetic 200-400 PR4:93 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.3 uM PR4:93 ; Antiarachidonate PJB1(2):269 ; Antibacterial 500 ppm VAL MBC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiedemic 100 PR4:95 ; Antiestrogenic X12495555 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antigenotoxic 50-500 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antiherpetic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antiinflammatory (11 uM) IC~97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Antikeratotic IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosating PCF-I:200 ; Antioxidant 10 uM HHM7:7 IC65=30 ppm PCF:219 ; Antiprostaglandin 11 uM PM186:1986 IC50=9.2 mM POP:150 ; Antipyretic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular EC50=2 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 3 ml/man/day DUKE1992B 400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Antithromboxane LRN-JUL87 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer FT71:S131 ; Antiviral IC50=16.2-25.6 ug/ml PR14:495 ; Apifuge 382 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=200 uM gpg J14432 IC50=224 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4:93 ; Carcinogenic? NIG ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=129 uM JNP65:1517 IC>97=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/ml PR4:93 ; Dermatitigenic M&R489 ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; FLavor FEMA 10-500 ARC ; Fungicide PMP23:60 ; Hepatoprotective 100 ppm TOX107:39 ; Herbicide PMP23:60 ; Insecticide; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant; Juvabional 382 ; Larvicide JE26:72 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=2,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM rbt GPH27:629 IC50=9.2 uM; Sedative; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG ; Trypsin-Enhancer LRN-DEC93 ; Ulcerogenic PR4:93 ; Varroacide X10826162 ; Vasodilator PR14:495 ; Vermifuge DUKE1992B

FURFURAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GALANGIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory IC50=5.5 uM DFN:153 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant X11344041 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=39 uM PM57:A110 ; Antiviral JNP55:1732 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC20=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =7 IC50=5.5 uM DFN:153 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Mutagenic AFR27:182 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 4 uM CLE120:213 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223

GAMMA-ASARONE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic PJB1(3):231

GAMMA-TERPINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GUAIENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Rhizome 350 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOACOLAMONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOACORONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOCAESPITOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOCALAMINEDIOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOCALAMUSENONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOEUGENOL Rhizome 228 - 12,510 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiaggregant IC50=0.72 uM PR4(3):93 ; Antiinflammatory X10871845 ; Antioxidant IC79=30 ppm PCF:219 ; AntiTNF X10871845 ; Antitumor X10871845 ; Bacteristat JAF40:2329 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2329 ; Cytotoxic 25 ug/mL PR4(3):93 ; Fungistat 100 ug/mL PR4(3):93 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Motor-Stimulant BVC:162 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Trichomonistat IC50=10 ug/ml NIG

ISOSHYOBUNONE Rhizome 134 - 670 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LIMONENE Rhizome 10 - 1,400 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Rhizome 30 - 6,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MAGNESIUM Rhizome 1,100 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Rhizome 309 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MENTHOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic MAR ; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiasthmatic MAB ; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antiinflammatory MAR ; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic JPP46:16 ; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180 ; Antirheumatic MAR ; Antisalmonella X12083863 ; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Antivaginitic FEL ; Antivulvitic FEL ; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR ; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200 ; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16 ; Bronchorrheic ACM:200 ; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; Choleretic X1242658 ; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant KCH ; Congestant JPP46:16 ; Convulsant RJH ; Counterirritant DUKE1992B ; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652 ; Dermatitigenic M&R654 ; Diaphoretic KCH ; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant JPP46:16 ; Gastrosedative M11 ; Irritant JPP46:16 ; Myorelaxant M29 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurodepressant JPP46:16 ; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16 ; Nociceptive JPP46:16 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Refrigerant JPP46:16 ; Rubefacient DUKE1992B ; Termiticide 382 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

MENTHONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; Allelopathic X12083883 ; Analgesic DUKE1992B ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.4 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacillary MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiescherichic MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569 ; Antilisteria MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antisalmonella MIC=5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Antiseptic 2.25 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.044 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625-2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=2.5 mg/ml X12083863 ; Cerebrotoxic orl man JAR4:24 ; Culicide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; FLavor FEMA 5-50 ARC ; Fungicide X12083883 ; Insecticide LC50=156-194 mg/l X11997977 ; Larvicide X11997977 ; Mutagenic AEHD1:176 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive X12083883 ; Sedative JE25:165 ; Trichomonicide LD100=600 ug/ml FT67:279

METHYL-AMINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Irritant DUKE1992B

METHYL-CHAVICOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=258 uM LAB58 ; DNA-Binder PJB1(2):278 ; Hepatocarcinogenic BIS ; Hypothermic PJB1(2):278 ; Insecticide; Pesticide DUKE1992B

METHYL-EUGENOL Rhizome 1,025 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial IJO15(4):199 ; Anticonvulsant DUKE1992B ; Antidote (Strychnine) DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antioxidant EC50=100 ul/l PMP22:233 ; Antiradicular PMP22:233 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 411 ; FLavor FEMA 5-15 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Fungistat 100 ug/mL PR4(3):93 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Myorelaxant FT61:254.1990 ; Narcotic DUKE1992B ; Nematicide MIC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative DUKE1992B

METHYL-ISOEUGENOL Rhizome 110 - 3,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Anesthetic JBH ; Antiaggregant IC50=56 ug/mL PR4(3):93 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antihistaminic JBH ; Antispasmodic JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR4(3):93 ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 5-100 ARC ; Herbicide JBH ; Insect-attractant DUKE1992B ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Toxic JBH

MUCILAGE Plant 8,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Demulcent PJB1(2):279 ; Hypocholesterolemic GAZ

MYRCENE Plant: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

N-HEPTYLIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

OCIMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Insecticide LAF ; Perfumery ARC

OXALIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-CYMENE Rhizome 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic MAR ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antibacillary X10826719 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antiflu DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 12-250 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative ZEB ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml FT67:279

PALMITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PARASARONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENOL Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic M29 ; Anesthetic JE26:79 ; Antibacterial JE26:79 ; Antihemorrhoidal MAR ; Antihydrocoele M29 ; Antiincontinence M29 ; AntiMS M29 ; Antionychogryphotic MAR ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiprostatitic M29 ; Antipyruvetic JBH ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispastic MAR ; Antiviral M29 ; Antiwrinkle MAR ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Emetic M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Hemolytic 5,400 ppm MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rodenticide LD50=1,040 cut rat AFR27:165 ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

POTASSIUM Rhizome 16,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PREISOCALAMENDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RESIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SABINENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial X14506036 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic X14506036 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Perfumery ARC

SAPONIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SEKISHONE Rhizome 650 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELINA-3,7(11)-DIENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SELINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

Expectorant DUKE1992B

SHYOBUNONE Rhizome 1,850 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SODIUM Rhizome 459 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

TANNIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TERPINEN-4-OL Rhizome 10 - 500 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antiallergic DUKE1992B ; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982 ; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623 ; Antiseptic FFJ9:129 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; Antitussive CJT ; Antiulcer X10823671 ; Bacteriostatic CJT ; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uM TOX ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renoirritant CAN ; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986 ; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TERPINIC-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TERPINOLENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antioxidant X14664510 ; Deodorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 15-60 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRANS-ANETHOLE Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic 10-100 ug/ml PM67:564 ; Anesthetic PM67:564 ; Antigenotoxic 40-400 mg/kg orl mus X11313116 ; Antioxidant X10925395 ; Antiradicular X10925395 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=75.2 uM gpg (weak activity); FLavor FEMA 1,250-3,150 ARC ; Sweetener 13 x sucrose

TRANS-ISOELEMICINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRANS-ISOEUGENOL-METHYL-ETHER Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

TRIMETHYLAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:974

TROPONE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ZINC Rhizome: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:176: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:165: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:182: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP134: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP135: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:153: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FEL: Jim Duke's personal files

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT61:254.1990: Fitoterapia No.61: 254, 1990.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT71:S131: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

GPH27:629: Chen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG20:40: HerbalGram No. 20, page 40.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO15(4):199: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 15(4): 199, 1990+

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

J14432: Jim Duke's personal files

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JA6(4):36: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR4:24: J. Aromatherapy 4: 24.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE25:165: Ortiz de Urbina, A.V., Martin*, M.L., Montero, M.J., Moran, A., and San Roman, L. 1988. Sedating and Antipyretic Activity of the Essential Oil of Calamintha sylvatica subsp. Ascendens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 25: 165-171, 1989.

JE26:72: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:79: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:184: Janssens, J., Laekeman, G.M., Pieters, L.A.C., Totte, J., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. 1990. Nutmeg Oil: Identification and Quantitation of its Most Active Constituents as Inhibitors of Platelet Aggregation. J.of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 179-188, 1990.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

K17576: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

K27796: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC93: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-93.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUL87: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jul-87.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R488: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R489: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R654: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF-I:200: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:219: Jim Duke's personal files

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):269: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):278: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):279: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):231: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM186:1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM67:564: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID11020457: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP22:233: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

POP: Hostettmann, K., Marston, A., Maillard, M. and Hamburger, M., eds. 1995. Phytochemistry of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine. (Proc. Phytochem. Soc. Eur. 37) Oxford Science Publications. New York. 408 pp.

POP:150: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:25: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:495: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(3):93: Laekeman, G.M., Van Hoof, L., Haemers, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. Eugenol a Valuable Compound for In Vitro Experimental Research and Worthwhile for Further In Vivo Investigation. Phytotherapy Research 4(3): 93, 1990.

PR4:93: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.

PR4:95: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 95.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT: Schulz, V, Hansel, R and Tyler, VE. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy - A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TR42:511: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

VAL: Valnet, J. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Translated from the 1980 French Edition by Robin Campbell and Libby Houston. Destiny Books, New York. 279 pp.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.


ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

Wed Oct 21 09:41:48 EDT 2015

Please send questions and comments to:

James A. Duke
Green Farmacy Garden
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759