Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals, Biological Activities and References in: Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) -- Comfrey



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Dr. Duke's
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) -- Comfrey


ALLANTOIN Leaf 13,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Root 6,000 - 8,000 ppm DUKE1992A

ALUMINUM Root 237 ppm; DUKE1992A

ASCORBIC-ACID Root 132 ppm; DUKE1992A

ASH Root 140,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

ASPARAGINE Root 10,000 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A

BETA-CAROTENE Root 660 ppm; DUKE1992A



CALCIUM Root 11,300 ppm; DUKE1992A

CARBOHYDRATES Root 759,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

CAROTENES Plant 6,300 ppm; DUKE1992A



CHROMIUM Root 8 ppm; DUKE1992A

COBALT Root 129 ppm; DUKE1992A






FAT Root 17,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

FIBER Root 72,000 ppm; DUKE1992A


GABA Root: DUKE1992A



GUM Root 50,000 - 100,000 ppm DUKE1992A



IRON Root 810 ppm; DUKE1992A


KILOCALORIES Root 2,170 /kg; DUKE1992A






MAGNESIUM Root 1,700 ppm; DUKE1992A

MANGANESE Root 67 ppm; DUKE1992A

MUCILAGE Root 290,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES Root 250,000 - 300,000 ppm DUKE1992A



PHOSPHORUS Root 2,111 ppm; DUKE1992A

POTASSIUM Root 15,900 ppm; DUKE1992A

PROTEIN Root 94,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

PYROCATECHINS Root 24,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

REDUCING-SUGARS Root 51,500 ppm; DUKE1992A


RIBOFLAVIN Root 7.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

ROSMARINIC-ACID Leaf 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A


SILICIC-ACID Leaf 40,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

SILICON Root 35 ppm; DUKE1992A


SODIUM Root 3,510 ppm; DUKE1992A






TANNIN Plant 80,000 - 90,000 ppm DUKE1992A

THIAMIN Root 1.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

TIN Root 6.7 ppm; DUKE1992A


WATER Root 862,000 ppm; DUKE1992A


ZINC Root 2.8 ppm; DUKE1992A


ABeta-Inhibitor X16495207

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC

Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor CPB37:1287

Aggregant PAM

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 SYN-X X16249088

Allelochemic SN149:389

Allergenic M&R317 M&R610 WER

Amphiglycemic? DAS

Analeptic DUKE1992B

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER 200 ug/day WER 5-10 g/day PMP23:51 TEI

Androgenic? PAM

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1

Anorexic 52

Anthelmintic JNP59:205

Antiacne 135 mg/day 200 ug/day WER MPP PAM DUKE1992B

Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29

Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B

Antiadenoviral EMP5:207

AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X 200-1,000 ug SYN-X

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day JBH LAF PAM SYN-X

Antiaging 200-1,000 ug SYN-X 400 mg/day PM69:1125 DUKE1992B

Antiakathisic M29

Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day FHN JBH PIL

Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER 500 mg/day BPB24:1206 PIL

Antialopecic DAS

Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER 2,000-6,000 mg/day 5-16 g/man/day 50 mg/day WER PIL X16524383

Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B

Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl IJI10:729 ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat DUKE1992B ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat DUKE1992B

Antianemic M29 MAR

Antianginal 400 mg/day WER DUKE1992B

Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 X16606632

Antianorectic DAS JBH

Antianorexic M29

Antianxiety 400 mg/day WER DAS

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR

Antiarrhythmic 400 mg/day 500-1,500 mg RAF DAS

Antiarteriosclerotic DAS

Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day 1,000 mg/day WAF 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man DAS MPP PIL

Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER MPP PAM

Antiatherogenic X15712986

Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day 400 mg/day 500 mg/day WER IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 MPP X11413687

Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER

Antibacterial DAS JE26:74 PM55:663 DUKE1992B

Antiberiberi DUKE1992B

AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day

Anticancer JAF47:397 JNU

Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335

Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335

Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335

Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335

Anticanker 100 mg/day WER MPP

Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 JAF45:1523

Anticarcinomic PAM

Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B

Anticariogenic JNP59:205

Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER

Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 15 mg/day WER 30 mg/day WER 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X 400 ug/day MPP PIL DUKE1992B

Anticephalagic PIL DUKE1992B

Anticerebrotic JBH

Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day 1.6-10 mg/day WAF MPP

AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 500-1,000 mg TE2 PIL

Anticheilitic DAS DUKE1992B

Antichilblain JBH

Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day M29 DAS

Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B DAS

Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF 200 ug/day WAF 500-5,000 mg/day WAF 500-750 mg/day

Anticoagulant LAF

Anticoeliac MAR

Anticold 1-2 g/man/day 50 mg DAS

Anticolitic DAS DUKE1992B

Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN

Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus BBE FAC

Anticorneotic DAS

Anticoronary 200 ug/day 30 mg/day SYN-X 400 mg/day SYN-X 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16

AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 DAS

AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF

Anticystinuric DUKE1992B

Antidandruff ALH DAS

Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR DUKE1992B

Antideliriant DUKE1992B

Antidementia MPP PIL PJB1(1):171

Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER 200 ug/day WAF DAS X11917505

Antidermatitic DAS

Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 200-1,000 ug 3-5 mg/day WER 30 mg/day SYN-X 400-800 mg/man/day JBH SYN-X X15796587 DUKE1992B

Antidiabetic? WIC

Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B

Antidiscotic DAS

Antidote (Aluminum) DAS EMP6:189

Antidote (Cadmium) DAS LL-MAY89

Antidote (Camphor) PJB1(3):241

Antidote (Lead) DAS

Antidote (Mercury) DAS

Antidote (Morphine) PJB1(3):241

Antidote (Paraquat) MAR

Antidysenteric DUKE1992B

Antidysgeuzic WRI

Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR

Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER

Antidyspeptic PIL

Antidysphagic DUKE1992B

AntiEBV EMP6:189

Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER 3.5-5 g/day WER

Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims IJI10:729 1 g/man/day DAS EMP6:189 JBH

Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135

Antiencephalitic DAS

Antiencephalopathic M29

Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF 500 mg/day WAF

Antienterotic KEN

Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER 3 g/day WER 450 mg/day WER

Antiescherichic PR14:561

Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 500-1,000 mg TE2 DAS JBH KEN


Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day

Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF 30 mg WAF 400 ug WAF

Antiflu EMP5:207

Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR

Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF

Antigastritic JBH PIL

Antigastrotic KEN

Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523


Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ABEL1999

Antiglossitic DAS

Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug

Antigonadotrophic JNM1:10

Antigonadotropic JNM1:10

Antigout 200 ug WAF

Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF 15 mg WAF 50 mg WAF DUKE1992B

Antiheartburn DUKE1992B

Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 25 uM PC36:579 IC70=5-10 um/l IJI10:729

Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS

Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS

Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230

Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 JNP59:205 M11 PJB1(3):241 PM56(2):173 PM56:173 DUKE1992B

Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day 50 ug/ml V&D EC50=20 ug/ml POP:270 EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 EMP5:194 DUKE1992B

Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day

Antihiccup 1 tsp M29

Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man 50 mg 2x/day WER DUKE1992B

AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml EC50=40 ug/ml POP:270 EMP6:189 JNP59:205 PMM

Antihomocysteine SN160:282

Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER

Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189


Antihyperkinetic DAS

Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B JNP59:205 NP6:1

Antihyperthyroid X6724503

Antihypoglycemic DAS

Antiichythyotic PAM

Antiimpotence M29

Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER

Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER 60 mg/day WER

Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER IC~58=1,000 uM JE26:82 LRN1995 PAM PCF:19

Antiinsomniac DAS DUKE1992B

Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER

Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml

Antikeratitic DUKE1992B

Antikeshan DAS

Antiketotic M11

AntiLegionella YAK122:487

Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR M29

Antilethargic DUKE1992B

Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 AJC31:37

Antileukonychic MTM


Antileukotriene PAM DUKE1992B

Antilipolytic JNP59:205

Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 PM56:173

Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF PAM

Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR

AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg 50 mg 50 mg/day KEn 500-2,000 mg KEN

Antilymphomic X16762953

Antimaculitic PIL

Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM

Antimastalgic PAM

Antimastitic PAM

Antimeasles DAS

Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718

Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2

AntiMeniere's JAD

Antimenopausal 1,000-1,500 mg/day 200 ug/day WAF 500-5,000 mg/day WAF 500-750 mg/day

Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM

Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 X16606632

Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER M29 DUKE1992B

Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL


Antimutagenic EMP6:235 PCF:18 PCF:245 X16536576 DUKE1992B

Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER

Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B

Antinauseant JBH

Antinephritic CPB38:1049 JNP59:843


Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER DUKE1992B

Antineuramidase X634178

Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B

Antineuritic DUKE1992B

Antineuropathic 50 mg WER TEI

Antineurotic DAS

AntiNF-kB BO2

Antinitrosaminic PCF:18

Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR

Antinociceptive PR14:401 X579998

Antinyctalopic WRI

Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X 30 mg/day SYN-X PIL DUKE1992B

Antionychyotic PIL

Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 FT65(2):101

Antiophthalmic M29

Antiorchitic DAS

Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER HSC25:1487

Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl 500-2,000 mg/day DAS

Antiototic DAS

Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PHM7:7 100 ppm DUKE1992B 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 EC50=2.7 ug/ml FT62:170 IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 M11 PAM PIL X12058360

Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578

Antiozenic DUKE1992B

Antipapillomic MPP

Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day 100 mg/day WER 200-400 ug/day WAF

Antiparotitic DAS

Antipellagric DAS DUKE1992B

Antipeptic 30-130 mg/man/day 25th

Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER 750 mg/day WER MPP

Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587

Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 DAS

Antipityriasic PAM

Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF M29 X16524383

AntiPMS 1 g/day 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl JAFC34:409 PIL

Antipneumonic PAM

Antipodriac DAS

Antipolio V&E

Antipoliomyelitic DAS DUKE1992B

Antiporphyric 30-300 mg/man/day MAR

Antiprolactin PAM

Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 AJC31:37 JNU X11270716

Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN PJB1(1):169

Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM

Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l HH2

Antipsoriac 2% MAR PAM

Antipulmonotic VET94

Antipyretic EMP6:189

Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X 30 mM JAF48:235 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 PAM PM56:173 SYN-X X12058360

AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF 280-350 mg/day WAF 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF

Antirenitic CPB38:1049

Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X

Antiretinotic PIL

Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF DAS MPP

Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF

Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR

Antiscotomic DUKE1992B

Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X 50 mg/day WER MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR JE26:76 PMP23:51

Antishingles DAS

Antishock IJI10:735

Antisickling PM56(1):41

Antisilicotic MPT

Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X

Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER 500-5,000 mg/day WAF EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 DAS PIL

Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER

Antistaphylococcic PR14:561

Antisteatotic JN133:1302

Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR EMP5:207

Antistress 500-1,000 mg 500-1,500 mg/day WAF 500-750 mg/day WAF DAS SHT76

Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X

Antisunburn PM61:510

Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X 200-800 ug SYN-X 30 mg/day SYN-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X

Antithiamin PCF:69

Antithyreotropic DUKE1992B

Antithyroid JNM1:10

Antitic DAS

Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER DUKE1992B

Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X 30 mg/day SYN-X

Antitumor 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X 200 ppm diet orl mus 526 HSC25:1495 JBH PAM

Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2

Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432

Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432

Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 PAL:335

Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335

Antitumor (Gastric) PIL

Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335

Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 NR54:S71

Antitumor (Prostate) MES PIL

Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718

Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432

Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 JAF47:397

Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL EMP6:189 JE26:82 JNP59:205 PAM

Antiulcerogenic JE29:25

Antiuremic JNP59:843

Antivaccinia EMP5:207

Antivaginitic MAR

Antivaricose JBH

Antivertigo DUKE1992B

Antiviral 1-5 g/day EC50=40 ug/ml IC50=62.5 ug/ml PS75:161 V&D

Antiviral? M29

Antixerophthalmic DAS

Anxiolytic 500-1,500 mg/day 500-750 mg/day SHT76 WAF X11917505 X12802204

AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2

Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 X16534555

Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667

Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM

Astringent MAR

Atherogenic PAM

Autotoxic JCE26:315

Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1

Beta-Blocker NP6:1

Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 NP6:1

Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1

Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 525 DAS HG22:14

Candidicide MAR

Carcinogenic 2% (diet) AHP156 DUKE1992B

Cardiodepressant SN160:282

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS

Cardioprotective 200 ug/day 3,000-5,000 mg PIL PIL DUKE1992B

Cardiotonic DUKE1992B

Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B

Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog BBE

Cerebrotonic SN160:282

Chelator JNP59:205

Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 MES X15712986

Cholagogue WIC

Choleretic 411 KCH

Cholinergic CAN

Circulotonic PIL

Clastogenic JAF38:805 JBH

CNS-Active WIC

CNS-Depressant FAC DUKE1992B

CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE 2,500 mg/kg scu mus BBE

CNS-Paralytic DUKE1992B

CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine

Co-carcinogenic PCF:44

Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS

Collagen-Sparing PM61:510

Collagenic BO2 PIL

Collyrium JBH

Colorant JBH

Controlled HG23

Copper-Antagonist SYN-X

COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432

COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 IC>58=1,000 uM PHM7:7

Curaroid AEH

Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

Cytoprotective CAN

Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml POP:270 TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270

Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10

Demulcent JBH PJB1(2):279

Deodorant M29

Depressant 52

Detoxicant M11 DUKE1992B

Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL

Diagnostic MAR

Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day IJO13:168 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 HG17 NP6:1 WIC

DNA-Active JBH

DNA-Protective JAF50:7022

Dye M11

Encephalopathic M29

Energizer HYL

Ergogenic PIL

Erythrocytogenic DAS


Fibrinolytic MPP

Fistula-Preventive PAM

Flatugenic PFH46:77

Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml DAS NIG

Gastroprotective X6654625

Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230

Hepatoprotective ACM:210 JN127:893S KCH DUKE1992B

Hepatotoxic HG23:36 JBH M11 PIL

Hepatotropic DUKE1992B

Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B

Hypercholesterolemic PAM

Hyperglycemic M11

Hypertensive DAS

Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X 300-1,000 mg/day DAS 400 mg/day WER 50-100 mg 3x/day 500 mg/day WER GAZ NIG DUKE1992B

Hypoglycemic 10-30 mg/man/day 200-1,000 ug SYN-X X15796587 DUKE1992B

Hypolipidemic RWG:17

Hypotensive 1 g/day WER 1,000 mg/man/day 1,000-4,000 mg/day DUKE1992B 10 g/man/day/orl PAM 200-1,000 ug SYN-X 260-500 mg/day 30 mg/day SYN-X DUKE1992B

Hypouricemic X12350076

Ileorelaxant FT1990:509

Immunomodulator HYL JAF50:5878 KEN PIL

Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM DAS PJB1(1):181 PPL7:187 SYN-X DUKE1992B

Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 RWG29

Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR EB48:111

Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X 400 mg/day SYN-X DUKE1992B

Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264

Interferonogenic EMP1:124 PAM

Juvabional 382

Keratolytic MAR

Larvistat JBH

Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF 300-500 mg/day AJC62:1212 DUKE1992B

Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X

Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B

Lipotropic JE26:86

Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 JAF46:4545 JNP59:205

Lithogenic DAS

Litholytic PIL

Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057

MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205

Memorigenic HYL SN160:282

Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

Metal-Chelator PCF:25

Mucogenic JPP42:657 PAM

Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR

Mutagenic JBH

Myoparalytic AEH

Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER

Neoplastic CRC

Neuroinhibitor OHAI13:165

Neuroprotective PIL X16495207

Neurotoxic (to birds) JBH


NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 X16606632

NO-Genic JAF50:850

Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 JNP59:205 PCF:19

Osteogenic DAS

Oviposition-Stimulant JBH

Ovulant DUKE1992B

Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

Pesticide DUKE1992B

Phagocytotic PAM

Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2

Preservative M11

Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 JAFC45:632 PIL

Prostaglandigenic RWG27

Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655

Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2

Psychotropic CPB38:1049

Radioprotective X16536576

Sedative 500 mg RWG17 HG40:12 PAM PM6:499.1986

Serotoninergic PAM

Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER

Sunscreen 0.1% AllHerb1998 IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 PM61:510

Suppurative DUKE1992B

Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 2 x glucose JBH LAF

Taenicide MAR

Testosteronigenic 60 mg/day WER

Thymoprotective PAM

Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF 500-750 mg/day WAF WER

Trichomonicide M29

Triglycerigenic PAM

Tumorigenic 505

Ubiquiot JBH

Uricogenic PAM

Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS

Urinary-Acidulant M29

Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER

Vasodilator M29 NP6:1

VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

Vulnerary CAN210 JE26:76 M29 MAR PAM PC29:660

Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB JNP59:205

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Beta sitosterol



25th: 25 Dispensatory

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

526: Collins, D.J., Culvenor, C.C.J., Lamberton, J.A., Loder, J.W. and Price, J.R., Plants for Medicines, CSIRO, East Melbourne, Australia, 1990, 303 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH: De Smet, P.A.G.M., Keller, K., Hansel, R. and Chandler, R.F., eds. 1993. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs 2. Springr-Verlag, Berlin. 348pp.

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AllHerb1998: AllHerb1998

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB24:1206: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB37:1287: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT62:170: Parveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG23: Jim Duke's personal files

HG23:36: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJI10:729: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.

IJI10:735: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.

IJO13:168: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:4545: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5878: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:843: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OHAI13:165: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC29:660: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):279: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):241: Jim Duke's personal files

PM55:663: Planta Medica, 55: 663.

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT76: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

VET94: Tyler, V.E.. 1994.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11270716: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11917505: Jim Duke's personal files

X12058360: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X16249088: Jim Duke's personal files

X16277432: Jim Duke's personal files

X16495207: Jim Duke's personal files

X16524383: Jim Duke's personal files

X16534555: Jim Duke's personal files

X16536576: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X579998: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X6724503: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace