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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Zingiber officinale ROSCOE (Zingiberaceae) -- Ginger

Identifier

020748

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Zingiber officinale ROSCOE (Zingiberaceae) -- Ginger


Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Rhizome 33 - 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486 ; Anesthetic DUKE1992B ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569 ; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:823 ; Anticatarrh M29 ; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2 ; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17 ; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253 ; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B ; Antiplaque X12537346 ; Antirheumatic PR14:240 ; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic JBH ; Antisinusitic PR14:240 ; Antispasmodic SHT158 ; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2 ; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182 ; Candidicide LAF337 ; Carcinogenic ZEB ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Convulsant JAR8:2 ; Counterirritant M29 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253 ; Dentifrice M29 ; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC ; Fungicide SHT158 ; Gastroprotective X11281182 ; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2 ; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2 ; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253 ; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Nematicide NIG ; Neurotoxic JAR8:2 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507 ; Perfume ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient M29 ; Secretogogue SHT158 ; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2 ; Surfactant SHT158 ; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED'95 ; Transdermal X14703969 ; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

1-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-3,5-DIACETOXYOCTANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

1-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-3,5-OCTANEDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10-DEHYDROGINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Anticholeretic HG17 ; Antiinflammatory > indomethacin CAN ; Antiprostaglandin DUKE1992B

10-EPIZONARENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10-GINGEDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

10-GINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory > indomethacin CAN ; Antiprostaglandin HG17

10-GINGEROL Rhizome 200 - 1,862 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Cholagogue JDD6:25 ; Thermogenic 60 uM rat JOB16:755

10-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

12-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

14-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

16-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,2,4-TRIMETHYL-HEPTANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3-PHENYL-BENZALDEHYDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

4-PHENYL-BENZALDEHYDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6,10-DEHYDROGINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-DEHYDROGINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory > indomethacin CAN ; Antiprostaglandin HG17

6-DIHYDROGINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-GINGEDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-GINGEDIOL-ACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-GINGEDIOL-ACETATE-METHYL-ETHER Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-GINGEDIOL-METHYL-ETHER Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-GINGERDIONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory > indomethacin CAN ; Antiprostaglandin HG17

6-GINGEROL Rhizome 130 - 7,138 ppm JAD YAK112:645

Amphitensive 0.5-1 mg/kg JDD6:31 ; Analgesic 1.7-3.5 mg/kg ivn JDD6:32 140 mg/kg orl mus JDD6:32 ; Anti-5-HT DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic MAB ; Antiemetic 25 mg/kg JDD6:25 ; Antioxidant PCF:78 ; Antiprostaglandin 411 ; Antipyretic 1.7-3.5 mg/kg ivn JDD6:32 140 mg/kg orl mus JDD6:32 ; Antiseratogenic JBH ; Antitussive IWU ; Antiulcer IC54=100 mg/kg JDD6:30 IC58=150 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Cardiodepressant IWU ; Cardiotonic IWU ; Cholagogue JE13:217.1985 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; Depressor DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective 411 ; Hypertensive 0.5-1 mg/kg JDD6:31 ; Hypotensive 1-100 ug/kg JDD6:31 ; Larvicide LD90=62 ug/ml JDD6:33 ; Mutagenic JDD6:25 ; Nematicide JDD6:33 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 1 mM (60.7% inhibition); Sedative 411 ; Thermogenic 10 uM rat JOB16:755

6-METHYL-HEPT-5-EN-2-ONE Rhizome 2 - 50 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-METHYLGINGEDIACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-METHYLGINGEDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-PARADOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

6-SHOGAOL Rhizome 40 - 330 ppm YAK112:645

Analgesic 1.7-3.5 mg/kg ivn DUKE1992B 140 mg/kg orl mus JDD6:32 ; Anti-5-HT CPB38:431 ; Antiallergic MAB ; Antihistaminic MAB ; Antioxidant PCF:78 ; Antiprostaglandin 411 ; Antipyretic 1.7-3.5 mg/kg ivn DUKE1992B 140 mg/kg orl mus JDD6:32 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antitussive IWU ; Antiulcer IC70=150 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Bradycardic CAN ; Cardiodepressant 10-100 ug/kg JDD6:31 ; Cardiotonic IWU ; CNS-Depressant HG17 ; Enteromotility-Enhancer 2.5 mg/kg CPB38:431 ; Gastrostimulant JDD6:25 ; Hepatoprotective 411 ; Hypertensive 0.5-1 mg/kg JDD6:31 ; Hypotensive 1-100 ug/kg JDD6:31 ; Larvicide LD90=62 ug/ml JDD6:33 ; Molluscicide JBH ; Mutagenic PJB1(2):286 ; Nematicide JDD6:33 MLC=0.1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Pressor CAN ; Sedative 411 ; Sprout-Inhibitor; Sympathomimetic HG17 ; Thermogenic 20 uM rat JOB16:755 ; Vasoconstrictor HG17

7-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-BETA-17-EPOXY-LABD-TRANS-12-ENE-15,16-DIAL Rhizome 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=100 uM ASS547:244

8-GINGEDIOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

8-GINGEROL Rhizome 200 - 1,069 ppm DUKE1992A

Anti-5-HT DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic MAB ; Cardiotonic JDD6:25 ; Enteromotility-Enhancer 5 mg/kg CPB38:431 ; Thermogenic 20 uM rat JOB16:755

8-SHOGAOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antihistaminic MAB ; Thermogenic 20 uM rat JOB16:755

9-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

9-OXO-NEROLIDOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG

ACETALDEHYDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Addictive 8 ug/kg SN145:294 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 4-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respiraparalytic DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=43 ug/ml JAF47:4574

ACETIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ACETONE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R722 ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Narcotic M29

ALANINE Rhizome 310 - 1,793 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ALBUMIN Rhizome 4,984 - 45,924 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALLO-AROMADENDRINE Rhizome 1 - 70 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CADINENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CADINOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Acaricide; Antimite X11372974 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-COPAENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CURCUMENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Hypotriglyceridemic X8157222

ALPHA-FARNESENE Rhizome 20 - 1,250 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID Rhizome 340 - 3,190 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Antiaggregant FIH ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=42 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; Antimetastatic FIH ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive FIH ; Immunostimulant 0.12 ml/man/day FIH ; Lymphocytogenic 0.5 ug/ml FIH ; Propecic X10830511 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 39.5 g/day/hmn ARS:451 ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ALPHA-MUUROLENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Rhizome 3 - 200 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ALPHA-PINENE Rhizome 10 - 1,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelochemic DUKE1992B ; Allergenic M&R523 ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573 ; Antiseptic X16248573 ; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573 ; Antiviral EMP5:195 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coleoptophile DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MIK ; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX ; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141 ; Irritant JBH ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative LRN-JUN90 ; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90 ; Transdermal X7199340

ALPHA-SELINENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Perfumery ARC

ALPHA-TERPINENE Rhizome 0.5 - 35 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=1.0 mM JAF45:677 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antispasmodic PR14:623 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insecticide 0.86 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.76 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic PR14:623

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Rhizome 8 - 500 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ALPHA-ZINGIBERENE Rhizome: YAK112:645 74 - 4,600 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiulcer IC54=100 mg/kg YAK112:645

ALUMINUM Rhizome 663 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ANTI-METHYL-10-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANTI-METHYL-6-SHOGAOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ANTI-METHYL-8-SHOGAOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

AR-CURCUMENE Rhizome 20 - 9,520 ppm BML JAD YAK112:645

Antirhinoviral IC50=1,750? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC45=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,750? JNP57:658

ARGININE Rhizome 430 - 2,486 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

AROMADENDRINE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Rhizome 317 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Rhizome 7,700 - 200,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Rhizome 500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Rhizome 2,080 - 11,990 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BETA-BISABOLENE Rhizome 5 - 3,600 ppm BML YAK112:645

Abortifacient JE32:174 ; Antirhinoviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC57=100 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Antiviral IC50=1,800? JNP57:658 ; Perfumery ARC ; Stomachic X1469612

BETA-BISABOLOL Rhizome 5 - 295 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Rhizome 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Rhizome 0.7 - 45 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-ELEMENE Rhizome 2 - 500 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticancer (Cervix) MPT ; Antigliomic X12969529 ; Antiproliferant X12969529 ; Antitumor (Cervix) MPT ; Apoptotic X12969529

BETA-EUDESMOL Rhizome 7 - 465 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianoxic ED60=300 orl mus CPB38:2034 ; AntiEBV JAF44:1647 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.09 uM/ml JAF44:1647 ; Antipeptic CPB34:3854.1986 ; Antisalmonella >0.18 uM/ml JAF44:1647 ; Antitumor-Promoter? JAF44:1647 ; Antiulcer; Calcium-Antagonist 40 uM mus M26414 ; CNS-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective; Neurogenic X12023507 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative PH2

BETA-HIMACHALENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-IONONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic CD33:333 ; Antibacterial MIC=200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic MIC=100 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=140 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Fungicide; Hypocholesterolemic JAF43:2144 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-Inducer BBR216:198 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

BETA-MYRCENE Rf 2 - 950 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Rhizome 32 - 2,850 ppm DUKE1992A

Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide HH2 ; Perfumery M11

BETA-PINENE Rhizome 4 - 265 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R618 ; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337 ; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC ; Herbicide TOX ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic CAN ; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SELINENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Perfumery ARC

BETA-SESQUIPHELLANDRENE Rhizome 20 - 6,012 ppm JAD YAK112:645

Antirhinoviral IC50=0.44 uM JNP57:658 ; Antiulcer IC40=50 mg/kg YAK112:645 ; Expectorant PJB1(3):248 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Stomachic X1469612

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BETA-THUJONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Abortifacient CAN ; Antibacterial JEO7:271 ; Emmenagogue CAN ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETA-ZINGIBERENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BORNYL-ACETATE Rhizome 2 - 105 ppm DUKE1992A

(-)-Chronotropic 933 nl/ml HH2 ; (-)-Inotropic HH2 ; Antibacterial LAF ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.09 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antiviral LAF ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 70-80 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Myorelaxant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative

BORON Rhizome 1 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

CAFFEIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALAMENEN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM Rhizome 150 - 3,458 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CAMPHENE Rhizome 28 - 6,300 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic CWW ; Antilithic? JBH ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Expectorant HH2 ; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH ; Insectifuge 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CAMPHENE-HYDRATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CAMPHOR Rhizome 1 - 60 ppm DUKE1992A

Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne NIG ; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml WO2 ; Antidysenteric WO2 ; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl KCH ; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrositic MAR ; Antineuralgic MAR ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antiseptic M11 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carminative JPP46:16 ; CNS-Stimulant JE26:74 ; Convulsant RJH ; Cosmetic JBH ; Counterirritant MAR ; Decongestant NIG ; Deliriant M11 ; Ecbolic DUKE1992B ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Epileptigenic CAN ; Expectorant M29 ; Fungicide ED50=2.7 mM TOX ; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM 438 ; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge; Irritant JBH ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Occuloirritant M&R367 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM X9242356 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirainhibitor M11 ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rubefacient; Stimulant RJH ; Transdermal; Verrucolytic NIG ; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml WO2

CAPRIC-ACID Rhizome 1,800 - 1,980 ppm DUKE1992A

Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPRYLIC-ACID Rhizome 70 - 380 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiseptic PIL ; Candidicide 300 mg/man/12 x/day; Fungicide; Irritant M&R503 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CAPSAICIN Plant: DUKE1992A

5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor AAA31:329 ; Analgesic 411 ; Anaphylactic PMP24:118 ; Anesthetic M29 ; Antiaggregant AAA31:338 ; Antiarrhythmic 100 uM MED95 ; Anticolonospasmic 0.003 ivn gpg BBE ; Antiinflammatory AAA31:329 ; Antiischemic 100 uM MED95 ; Antimastalgic WER ; Antineuralgic M11 ; Antineuritic WER ; Antinitrosaminic ABS ; Antinociceptive TiPS11:333.1990 ; Antioxidant PCF:75 ; Antipsoriatic WER ; Antiseptic IWU ; Antispasmodic IWU ; Antitachycardic MED95 ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer TiPS11:333.1990 ; Calcium-Antagonist MED95 3 uM K20269 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Cardiotonic FT61:266 ; Catabolic ABS ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor AAA31:329 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Diaphoretic PJB1(1):170 ; Digestive IWU ; Endocrinactive 50 mg/kg scu rat BBE ; FLavor 0.009-10 ARC ; Hypothermic 7 mg/kg JE32:74 ; Irritant; Neurotoxic FT61:266.1990 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pyrogenic 6 mg scu rat PFA366:217 ; Repellent DUKE1992B ; Respirasensitizer DUKE1992B ; Rubefacient IWU ; Sialogogue PJB1(1):170 ; Thermogenic 0.7 mg/kg ims rat JNS34:587 ; Vasodilator IWU

CAR-3-ENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Rhizome 92,000 - 823,240 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic X16226832 ; Analgesic RAI ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antiasthmatic LAF ; Antibacterial JAF40:2329 ; Anticariogenic MIC=>1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antidermatitic WO3 ; Antiedemic CPB38:2283 ; Antifeedant 500 ppm TOX ; Antiinflammatory IC50=100 uM CPB38:2283 ; Antileishmanic X180905647 ; Antionychyotic RAI ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Antitumor JNP55:999 ; Antiulcer RAI ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 20-200 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Gastroprotective RAI ; Insectifuge; Irritant ZEB ; Larvicide X10701181 ; Mosquitocide X10701181 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JAR10:7 ; Termitifuge 382

CEDOROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHAVICOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Nematicide HG17 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

CHROMIUM Rhizome 6 - 20 ppm DUKE1992A

Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

CINEOLE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-10-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-12-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-6-SHOGOAL Rhizome 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-8-SHOGOAL Rhizome 40 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-BETA-SESQUIPHELLANDROL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-HEXAN-3-OL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-SESQUIABINENE-HYDRATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CIS-SESQUISABINENE-HYDRATE Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CITRAL Rhizome 13,500 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Antiallergenic; Antiallergic KCH ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):266 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer X15931590 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiherpetic X17199238 ; Antihistaminic KCH ; Antiinflammatory X18409048 ; Antileishmanic; Antioxidant X12615076 ; Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol; Antishock KCH ; Antispasmodic TEU ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Liver) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Antiviral X17199238 ; Apoptotic; Barbituate-Synergist PJB1(2):266 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Calcium-Antagonist X18484528 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic X12637974 ; Caspase-3-Inducer X15931590 ; Chemopreventive; Cytotoxic X19876560 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Expectorant KCH ; FLavor FEMA 4-170 ARC ; Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml; Glaucomagenic JAR10:7 ; Glutathionigenic; Herbicide IC50=115 uM TOX ; Myorelaxant 200 mg/kg; Nematicide IC52=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=100-260 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X18409048 ; NO-Inhibitor X18409048 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.19 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms JAR10:7 ; Sedative 1 mg/kg TEU ED 1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446 ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trypanocide X17686189 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1,500 uM JAF51:2837 ID50=1.5 mM JAF47:4574

CITRONELLAL Rhizome 2 - 145 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12137464 ; Allergenic M&R333 ; Antibacterial JE26:75 ; Antiseptic 3.8 x phenol W&W ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Fungicide JAR10:7 ; Insectifuge M11 ; Irritant ZEB ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Mutagenic? AEHD1:121 ; Nematicide MIC 1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.56 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ED=1 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446

CITRONELLOL Rhizome 2 - 6,500 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Antibacterial JE26:75 ; Antiseptic JAR10:7 ; Antistaphylococcic JAR10:7 ; Antistreptococcic JAR10:7 ; Candidicide JAR10:7 ; FLavor FEMA 1-50 ARC ; Fungicide HG17 ; Herbicide IC50=160 uM TOX ; Irritant ZEB ; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative W&W ; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

CITRONELLYL-ACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA <1-700 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

COBALT Rhizome 0.9 - 42 ppm DUKE1992A

Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

COPPER Rhizome 3 - 16 ppm DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CUMENE Rhizome 1 ppm; DUKE1992A

Narcotic DUKE1992B

CURCUMIN Plant: DUKE1992A

12-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor HG37:18 ; 5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X11380153 ; 5-HETE-Inhibitor IC50=3-10 uM BO2 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor AAA31:329 ; 8-HETE-Inhibitor IC40=3 uM BO2 ; Antiadenomacarcinogenic 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat FT68:483 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=81 uM PAL:326 ; Antiaggregant PJB1(1):172 ; Antialzheimeran 0.5-10 ug/ml JNP65:1227 ; Antiamyloid-Beta JNP65:1227 ; Antiangiogenic; Antiarachidonate PAL:326 ; Antiarthritic PAM ; Antiasthmatic HG37:18 ; Antiatherosclerotic 0.4-20 mg/kg/day FT68:483 ; Antibacterial NIG ; Antibronchitic HG37:18 ; Anticancer X16712454 ; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Duodenum) PAL:326 ; Anticancer (Mammary) 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Anticancer (Skin); Anticancer (Stomach) X16712454 ; Anticarcinogenic X10780880 ; Anticataract 75 mg/kg orl rat FT68:483 ; Anticholecystosic PAM ; Anticolitic HG37:18 ; Anticollagenic BO2 ; AntiCrohn's HG37:18 ; AntiEBV IC50=5.4 uM NR54:S24 ; Antieczemic IWU ; Antiedemic ED50=100.2 mg/kg orl mus (cf 78 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl rat (cf 45 for cortisone) ED50=48 mg/kg orl rat (cf 48 for phenylbutazone); Antieicosanoid BO2 ; Antihepatotic PFH44:87 ; AntiHIV IC50=40 uM BP49:1165 ; Antiinflammatory 1 uM HG37:18 1,200 mg/man/day; Antiintegrase 40-150 uM; Antiischemic PFH44:87 ; Antileishmanic IC50=7.8 ug/ml X10865470 ; Antileukemic FT68:483 ; Antileukotriene 170 mg/kg orl rat; Antilipoperoxidant X7714712 ; Antilithic 0.5% diet FT68:483 ; Antilymphomic 0.4 mg/ml IWU 4 ug/ml MAB ; Antimelanomic 200 nM/kg orl mus FT68:483 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic; Antinitrosaminic PAL:326 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA PCF:125 IC50=500 uM PC27:974 ; Antipapillomic X8879271 ; Antiperoxidant PCF:347 ; Antiproliferant IC50=13 uM; Antiprostaglandin 8.8 uM PM184.1986 ; Antipsoriatic HG37:18 ; Antispasmodic MPI ; Antithrombotic FT68:483 ; Antithromboxane FT68:483 ; Antitumor X16712454 ; Antitumor (Colon) CLE64:117 ; Antitumor (Liver) 10 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC91=10 uM; Antiulcer orl rat FT68:483 ; Antiviral IC50=5.4 uM NR54:S24 ; Apoptotic 150-2,000 ppm (diet) orl rat 30-90 uM BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiodepressant MPI ; Chelator IC50=500 uM PC27:974 Iron PAL:326 ; Chemopreventive; Cholagogue DUKE1992B ; Choleretic HG24:37 ; COX-2-Inhibitor 10-20 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:338 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inhibitor PIZ ; Cytotoxic 0.4-4 mg/ml IWU IC50=1 ug/ml FT68:483 IC50=25 uM BO2 ; Deodorant IWU ; Detoxicant PAL:326 ; DNA-Protective X7526190 ; Dye M11 ; Expectorant 100 uM PM69:523 ; Fibrinolytic FT68:483 ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Glutathionigenic 80 mg/kg igs rat PR13:571 ; Hepatoprotective 30 mg/kg/day FT68:483 30 ppm TOX107:39 ; Hypocholesterolemic 0.15% diet 7 wks FT68:483 ; Hypolipidemic FT68:483 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; IkappaB-alpha-Phosphorylation-Inhibitor X15252141 ; IKB-kinase-Inhibitor X16712454 ; IKK-Inhibitor X15129424 ; Immunostimulant 40 mg/kg/5 wk orl rat FT68:483 ; Lipase-Inducer JE50:167 ; Litholytic 0.5% diet FT68:483 ; Maltase-Promoter JE50:167 ; MDR-Inhibitor 1-55 uM X12570718 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 10 uM; Mucogenic 100 uM PM69:523 ; Nematicide X8221978 ; Neuroprotective 80 mg/kg igs rat PR13:571 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor X12680238 ; NO-Scavenger X9120760 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ED=~150 mg/kg; P450-Inhibitor IC50=2-14 ug/ml; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor IC42=3 uM BO2 ; Phototoxic IWU ; Plasmodicide X10865470 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.2% diet rat CR55:259 ; Protease-Inhibitor IC50=11-250 uM DUKE1992B ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=15 uM BO2 IC69=15 uM BO2 ; Protein-Kinase-Inhibitor FT68:483 ; PTK-Inhibitor 5-100 uM BOI ; Pulmonoprotective 200 mg/kg/7 d FT68:483 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3.4 uM CAR19:1039 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1340 ; Sortase-A-Inhibitor IC50=13-14 ug/ml X16277395 ; Sucrase-Promoter JE50:167 ; TNF-Inhibitor X12680238 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor X9584408 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor X9584408 ; Ulcerogenic orl rat FT68:483 ; VEGF-Inhibitor

CYSTINE Rhizome 80 - 462 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

D-BORNEOL Rhizome 14 - 1,102 ppm DUKE1992A

Convulsant ZEB ; Emetic ZEB ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfume ZEB

DECANAL Plant 5 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DECYL-ALDEHYDE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DELPHINIDIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC81=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R581 ; Antioxidant ID50=0.7-2.4 uM; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; NO-Inhibitor IC78=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

DELTA-CADINENE Rhizome 1 - 65 ppm DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED'95 ; P450-Inducer MED'95 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Testosterone-Inducer MED'95

DELTA-CAR-3-ENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DEMETHYL-HEXAHYDROCURCUMIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIETHYLSULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIHYDROGINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DODECANOIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 2-40 ARC

ELEMOL Rhizome 3 - 190 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=34 ug/ml JAF46:3434 ; Antiulcer X10823671

EO Or 800 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A Resin, Exudate, Sap 60,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Rhizome 800 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-ACETATE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antispasmodic DUKE1992B ; Carminative DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 20-1,500 ARC ; Respirotoxic >400 ppm ARC ; Stimulant DUKE1992B

ETHYL-ISOPROPYL-SULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-MYRISTATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 6-30 ARC

FARNESAL Rhizome 1 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

Juvabional 450 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

FARNESENE Rhizome 245 - 4,910 ppm DUKE1992A

Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromone JBH

FARNESOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiadenomic BBR225:869 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=39 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticarcinomic (Colon) JBT117:11 ; Anticarcinomic (Lung) BBR225:869 ; Antileukemic JBT117:11 ; Antimelanomic IC50=50 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antispasmodic PJB1(1):174 ; Apoptotic JBT117:11 ; FLavor FEMA 0.1-3 ARC ; Juvabional 450 ; Nematicide MLC=100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pheromonal PJB1(3):238 ; Sedative PJB1(1):174 ; Trichomonicide LD100=100 ug/ml FT67:279

FAT Rhizome 7,000 - 77,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Rhizome 9,000 - 171,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FLUORINE Rhizome 2 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FRUCTOSE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

FURANOGERMENONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FURFURAL Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic LAF ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Fungicide DUKE1992B ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Irritant CAN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GADOLEIC-ACID Rhizome 70 - 380 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Analeptic DUKE1992B ; Anticephalagic DUKE1992B ; Anticerebrotic JBH ; Antichoreic 1-32 g/man/day M29 ; Anticonvulsant 4,120 mg/kg ipr mus BBE ; Antihypertensive 1,000-4,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiinsomnic DUKE1992B ; Antilethargic DUKE1992B ; Antistress SHT76 ; Antitinnitic DUKE1992B ; Anxiolytic SHT76 ; Cardiovascular 208 ivn dog BBE ; CNS-Inhibitor 0.1 mg/kg ivn cat BBE 100 mg/kg ivn dog BBE 2,500 mg/kg scu mus BBE ; Diuretic 1,500-4,000 mg/man/day IJO13:168 ; Hypotensive 1,000-4,000 mg/day DUKE1992B ; Neuroinhibitor OHAI13:165 ; Neurotoxic to birds JBH ; Neurotransmitter; Sedative HG40:12 ; Tranquilizer WER

GAMMA-EUDESMOL Rhizome 2 - 115 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-MUUROLENE Rhizome 7 - 455 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-SELINENE Rhizome 35 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GAMMA-TERPINENE Rhizome 0.4 - 25 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X11124373 ; ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC23=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antifeedant HH3 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; FLavor FEMA 1-40 ARC ; Insectifuge HH3 ; Irritant ZEB ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GERANIAL Rhizome 35 - 20,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin X19726096 ; Antibacterial JE12:279.1984 ; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM NR54:S24 ; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiviral NR54:S24 ; Antiyeast X12696686 ; Chemopreventive X17199238 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic X17199238 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmolytic JAR10:7

GERANIOL Rhizome 2 - 345 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GERANYL-ACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R333 ; FLavor FEMA 1-20 ARC ; Insectiphile JBH ; Perfumery JBH ; Sedative JA6(4):40

GERMANIUM Rhizome 87 - 169 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINGEDIACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINGERENONE-A Rhizome 118 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anticoccidioid 10 ppm DUKE1992B ; Fungicide PC29(3):797 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GINGERENONE-B Rhizome 4.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

Fungicide PC29(3):797 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GINGERENONE-C Rhizome 14.2 ppm; DUKE1992A

Fungicide PC29(3):797 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

GINGEROL-METHYL-ETHER Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINGEROLS Rhizome 13,200 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GINGERONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLANOLACTONE Rhizome 120 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLOBULIN Rhizome 2,366 - 21,801 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUCOSE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

GLUTAMIC-ACID Rhizome 1,620 - 9,328 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLUTELIN Rhizome 2,506 - 23,091 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLYCINE Rhizome 430 - 2,486 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

GLYOXAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GUAIL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-2-OL Rhizome 1 - 135 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEPTAN-2-ONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXAHYDROCURCUMIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Cholagogue HG17 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B

HEXAN-1-AL Rhizome 2 - 35 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HEXANOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; FLavor FEMA 0.2-25 ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

HISTIDINE Rhizome 300 - 1,738 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

HUMULENE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

IRON Rhizome 4 - 162 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOEUGENOL-METHYL-ETHER Rhizome 0.6 - 40 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ISOGINGERENONE-B Rhizome 4.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

Fungicide PC29(3):797 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOLEUCINE Rhizome 510 - 2,926 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

ISOVALERALDEHYDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.5-5 ARC

KAEMPFEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KILOCALORIES Rhizome 690 - 3,764 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LAURIC-ACID Rhizome 390 - 3,630 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial TFLNO.86 ; Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Antiviral TFLNO.86 ; Candidicide X11600381 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC40=100 JAF50:2231 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC20=100 JAF50:2231 ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS

LECITHIN Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 40-100 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antiataxic MAR ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidementia M29 ; Antidyskinetic 40-80 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antilithic DAS ; Antimanic PAM ; Antimorphinistic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antisclerodermic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antisprue DUKE1992B ; AntiTourette's 20-50 g/man/day/orl MAR ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Cholinergic MAR ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 20-30 g/man/day DUKE1992B ; Lipotropic M11

LEUCINE Rhizome 740 - 4,257 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LIMONENE Rhizome 17 - 1,050 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINALOL Rhizome 2 - 1,500 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LINOLEIC-ACID Rhizome 1,200 - 11,220 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LYSINE Rhizome 570 - 3,110 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Rhizome 430 - 2,690 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Rhizome 106 - 350 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MENTHOL-ACETATE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHIONINE Rhizome 130 - 737 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHYL-10-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-12-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-6-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-6-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-8-GINGEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-8-SHOGOAL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-ACETATE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Perfumery ARC ; Trypsin-Enhancer CAN

METHYL-ALLYL-SULFIDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-CAPRYLATE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.2-40 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-GLYOXAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-HEPTENONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-ISOBUTYL-KETONE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor 5-18 ARC ; Perfumery ARC

METHYL-NONYL-KETONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 0.5-5 ARC ; Irritant? ARC ; Perfumery ARC

MUFA Rhizome 1,540 - 8,400 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYRCENE Rf 2 - 950 ppm DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor TYK1992:95 ; Allergenic M&R154 ; Analgesic EMM18:28 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Anticonvulsant X11085358 ; Antimutagenic EMM18:28 ; Antinitrosaminic X10606544 ; Antinociceptive 10-20 mg/kg ipr mus JPP42:877 20-40 mg/kg scu mus JPP42:877 ; Antioxidant JA6(4):33 ; Antispasmodic PM&T20:213.1986 ; Chemopreventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 0.5-9 ARC ; Fungicide TOX ; Hypothermic X11085358 ; Insectifuge DUKE1992B ; Irritant ZEB ; Myorelaxant 100-200 mg/kg X12587690 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

MYRICETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Antiallergenic RWG122 ; Antibacterial MIC=20-500 ug/ml; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antigastric DUKE1992B ; Antigingivitic MIC=20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antigonadotrophic JBH ; Antihistaminic RWG122 ; AntiHIV POP:270 ; Antiinflammatory OMM ; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 1.4 uM P&T78:143 IC50=3.9 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC99=200 ppm PCF ; Antiperiodontic MIC=20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiseptic JNP59:987 ; Antiviral POP:270 ; Apoptotic 60 uM PMID10673981 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=150 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; COMP-Inhibitor JCN70:1040 ; Diuretic OMM ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:170 ; Larvistat IC50=2.6-3.5 mM/kg diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; Mutagenic NIG ; Oxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 36 uM CLE120:213 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=11.9 ug/ml; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

MYRISTIC-ACID Rhizome 180 - 1,650 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

MYRTENAL Rhizome 0.5 - 30 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimalarial IC50=5-50 ug/ml RAS ; Antiplasmodial RAS ; Herbicide TOX ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

N-BUTYRALDEHYDE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA <1-5 ARC

N-DECANAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA <1-4 ARC

N-HEPTANE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA ARC

N-NONANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-NONANOL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-NONANONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-OCTANE Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-PROPANOL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

N-UNDECANONE Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NEO-ISOPULEGOL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NERAL Rhizome 20 - 13,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial IWU ; Antispasmodic JAR10:7 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389

NEROL Rhizome: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial HG17 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiseptic LAF ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; FLavor FEMA 1-20 ARC ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative ZEB ; Trichomonicide ED100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

NEROLIDOL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238 ; Allergenic M&R514 ; Antiacne PJB1(3):238 ; Antibacterial MIC=25-200 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antifeedant 1 mM (diet) TOX ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238 ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

NIACIN Rhizome 5 - 135 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; An

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Ginger

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

450: Russell, G. B., Phytochemical resources for crop protection, N. Z. J. Technol., 2, 1986, 127-134.

451: Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Takiguchi, T., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I., Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria, Bull Tokyo Dent. Coll., 31 (1), 1990, 17-21

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

52: Cooper-Driver, G. A., Chemical substances in plants toxic to animals, pp. 213-47 in Rechcigl, M., Jr., ed. CRC Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1983, 339 pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAA31:329: Jim Duke's personal files

AAA31:338: Jim Duke's personal files

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ABS: Abstract (See species file)

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:121: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993.

AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

ARS:451: Ferretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.

ASS547:244: Kawakishi, S., Morimitsu, Y., Osawa, T. 1994. Chemistry of Ginger Components and Inhibitory Factors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade. ASC Symp Ser, 547: 244-250.

B02: Jim Duke's personal files

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BBR216:198: Jim Duke's personal files

BBR225:869: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BML: Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980. Note: Three annual compilations on essential oils. Percentages multiplied by 250-10,000 ppm and rounded to get fresh and dry weights.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

BP49:1165: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CAR19:1039: Singletary, K., et al. 1998. Effect of the Beta-Diketones Diferoloylmethane (Curcumin) and Dibenzoylmethane on Rat Mammary DNA Adducts and Tumors Induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene. Carcinogenesis, 19(6): 1039-1043.

CD33:333: Jim Duke's personal files

CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis.

CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982.

CLE120:213: Uda, Y., Price, K. R., Williamson, G., Rhodes, M. J. C. 1997. Induction of the Anticarcinogenic Marker Enzyme, Quinone Reductase, in Murine Hepatoma Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids. Cancer Lett., 120 (2): 213-216.

CLE64:117: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX: Jim Duke's personal files

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB34:3854.1986: Chem & Pharm. Bull., 34: 3854, 1986.

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1772: Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 1772.

CPB38:2034: Yamahara, J., Matsuda, H., Naitoh, Y., Fujimura, H., and Tamai, Y. 1990. Antianoxic Action and Active Constituents of Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2033-2034, 1990.

CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug "Alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:431: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CR55:259: Rao, C. V., Rivenson, A., Simi, B., Reddy, B. S. 1995. Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis by Dietary Curcumin, a Naturally Occurring Plant Phenolic Compound. Cancer Research, 55(2): 259-266.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:154: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJP331:253: Jim Duke's personal files

EJP459:255: Jim Duke's personal files

EMM18:28: Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:199: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 199.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:225: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 225.

EMP5:333: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 333.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:170: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 170.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIH: Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1990: Fitoterapia No.5-1990.

FT61:266: Jim Duke's personal files

FT61:266.1990: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:200: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68:483: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GMJ: Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:27: Jim Duke's personal files

HG24:37: HerbalGram No. 24, page 37.

HG37:18: Jim Duke's personal files

HG40:12: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1487: Jim Duke's personal files

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO13:168: Jim Duke's personal files

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JA6(4):33: Jim Duke's personal files.

JA6(4):40: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF40:2329: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:1647: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:3434: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1340: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:5666: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF52:2507: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JAR8:2: Jim Duke's personal files

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JBT117:11: Jim Duke's personal files

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JCN70:1040: Dullo, A. G., et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, 70: 1040-1045.

JDD6:25: J. Drug. Dev. (Vol. 6=1993) e.g. Mustafa, T., Srivastava, K.C., and Jensen, K.B. 1993. Drug Development Report (9): Pharmacology of Ginger, Zingiber officinale. J. Drug. Dev. 6(1): 25-39.

JDD6:30: Jim Duke's personal files

JDD6:31: Jim Duke's personal files

JDD6:32: Jim Duke's personal files

JDD6:33: Jim Duke's personal files

JE12:279.1984: Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.

JE13:217.1985: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:75: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE29:25: Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., and Ageel, A.M. 1989. Evaluation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) for Gastric and Duodenal Antiulcer Activity in Rats. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 25-34, 1990.

JE32:174: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE50:167: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JEO7:271: J. Ess. Oil Res. 7: 271.

JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.

JIM127:546: Jim Duke's personal files.

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:391: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:446: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP53(5):1239: Nakane, H., Fukushima, M., and Ono*, K. Differential Inhibition Of Reverse Transcriptase And Various DNA Polymerases By Digallic Acid And Its Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products, 53(5): 1234-1240, 1990.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.

JNP57:658: Denyer, C.V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D.M., Ellis, M.R., and Yound, D.A.B. Isolation of Antirhinoviral Sesquiterpenes From Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Natural Products, 57(5): 658-662, 1994.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:823: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):884: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1227: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1457: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNS34:587: Yoshida, T., Yoshioka, K., Wakabayashi, Y., Nishioka, H., Kondo, M. 1988. Effects of Capsaicin and Isothiocyanate on Thermogensis of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 34(6): 587-594.

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JOB16:755: Eldershaw, T. P. D., Colquhoun, E. Q., Dora, K. A., Peng, Z. C., Clark, M. G. 1992. Pungent Principles of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) are Thermogenic in the Perfused Rat Hindlimb. Int J. Obesity, 16: 755-763.

JPP42:655: Fujita, T., Nakatani, E., Funaishi, N., Sakuma, S., Fujimoto, Y. Potent inhibition of prostaglandin inactivation in rabbit gastric antral mucosal slices by selenium ions in-vitro. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 655-657, 1990.

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

JPP42:877: Rao, V.S.N., Menezes, A.M.S., Viana, G.S.B. 1990. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 877-878, 1990.

JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.

JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

K20269: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF337: Jim Duke's personal files

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91.

LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R154: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R333: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R416: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R486: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R503: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R514: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R523: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R581: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R618: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R722: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M26414: Jim Duke's personal files

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer)

MED'95: Jim Duke's personal files

MED95: Jim Duke's personal files

MEDSCAPE'89: Jim Duke's personal files

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp.

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MPT: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of the Tropics. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., ed. Pudoc, Wageningen. 1987.

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

OHAI13:165: Jim Duke's personal files

OMM: Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)

P&T78:143: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:326: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:339: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(3):797: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:125: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:14: Naim, M., Zehavi, U., Nagy, S., and Rouseff, R.L. Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Off-Flavor Precursors in Citrus Fruits and Their Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.14.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:338: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:347: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:65: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 65.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PCF:75: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:78: Jim Duke's personal files

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PFA366:217: Cabanac, M., Leydier, M. C., Poirier, L. J. 1976. The Effect of Capsaicin on Temperature Regulation of the Rat. Pfluegers Arch, 366: 217.

PFH44:87: Jim Duke's personal files

PFH46:77: Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PIZ: Pizzorno, J. 1998. Total Wellness. Prima Health, a division of Prima.

PJB1(1): Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):170: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):266: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):286: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):292: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):248: Jim Duke's personal files

PM&T20:213.1986: Jim Duke's personal files.

PM184.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56(2):171: Joyeux, M., Rolland, A., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., and Dorfman, P. 1989. Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Injury in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes: A Model for Studying Anti-Hepatotoxic Crude Drugs. Planta Medica 56(2): 171-173, 1990.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(3):258: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):677: Matsukawa, Y., et al. The Effect of Quercetin and Other Flavonoids on Cell Cycle Progresssion and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer Cells. Planta Medica, 56(6): 677, 1990.

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56(6):695: Planta Medica, 56(6): 695, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A113: Planta Medica, 57: A113, 1991.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:523: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10616967: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10673981: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:118: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:58: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR11:281: Ibewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR13:571: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:240: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:40: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:623: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:93: Seidel, V., Verholle, M., Malard, Y., Tillequin, F., Fruchart, J-C., Duriez, P., Bailleul, F., Teissier, E. 2000. Phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra L. Inhibit in vitro LDL Peroxidation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(2): 93-98.

PR4(5):201: Meli, R., Autore, G., Di Carlo, G., Capasso, F. Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 201, 1990.

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

QRNM(SUMMER):91: Jim Duke's personal files

QRNM1997:293: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RAI: Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.

RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents - A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp.

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RR21:85: Rastitel'nye Resursy, 21: 85.

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT158: Jim Duke's personal files

SHT76: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN145:294: Science News, 145: 294.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SPI: Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TEU: Jim Duke's personal files

TFLNO.86: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TOX107:39: Jim Duke's personal files

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

TiPS11:333.1990: Jim Duke's personal files

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

WO2: Wealth of India.

WO3: Jim Duke's personal files

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

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YAK112:645: Yamahara, J., et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of... Yakugaku Zasshi 112: 645-655 (1992).

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ZZZ18:623: Mao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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