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Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) -- Broadbean, Faba Bean, Habas

Identifier

022029

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) -- Broadbean, Faba Bean, Habas


Chemicals

(+)-7-ISOJASMONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

2,6-DIAMINOPURINE Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

3,5,7,4'-TETRAHYDROXYFLAVONE Fruit 0.01 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

5-HYDROXYURACIL Root: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

7,3',4'-TRIHYDROXYFLAVONE Fruit 0.01 - 22 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

7,4'-DIHYDROXYFLAVONE Fruit 0.01 - 4 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALANINE Seed 2,280 - 12,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

ARGININE Seed 4,630 - 24,370 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

ARSENIC Fruit 0.2 - 1.4 ppm DUKE1992A

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 120 - 820 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 330 - 1,735 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Fruit 8,000 - 54,800 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 11,000 - 57,900 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASPARAGINE Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Diuretic HG17

ASPARTIC-ACID Seed 6,310 - 33,210 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

BETA-CAROTENE Fruit 0.1 - 0.6 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2.1 - 11 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

BETA-CYANOALANINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETULIN Root: DUKE1992A

Anticarcinomic PJB1(3):232 ; Antifeedant JAF38:494 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; AntiHIV 6.1 uM JNP66:263 ; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF38:493 ; Cytotoxic 600 ppm DUKE1992B 8.6 uM JNP66:263 ; Hypolipemic PMP23:49 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=119 uM YHH30:621 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=38.6 uM JNP64:1545

BIOTIN Seed 0.03 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antialopecic JLR1(2) ; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day PAM ; Antineuralgic JN127:710 ; Antiseborrheic PAM

BUTEIN Fruit 0.02 - 7 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory PM64:153 ; Antioxidant 1,000 uM PC27:974 ; Oxidase-Inhibitor JBH ; Pigment JBH

CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

CALCIUM Fruit 500 - 3,425 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 220 - 31,160 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CARBOHYDRATES Seed 117,000 - 615,790 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CHLORINE Fruit 430 - 2,945 ppm DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CHOLESTEROL Oil 400 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC43=10 uM JMF5:1

CHOLINE Fruit 50 - 340 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

CITRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

CONVICINE Fruit 600 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

COPPER Fruit 1.7 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

CYSTINE Seed 770 - 4,050 ppm DUKE1992A

Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

D-HYDROXYLYSINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DIVICINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

DOPA Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiparkinsonian DUKE1992B

DOPA-GLUCOSIDE Shoot: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FAT Fruit 1,000 - 6,850 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 6,000 - 31,580 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

FIBER Fruit 20,000 - 137,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 22,000 - 115,780 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FR Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FUMARIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A

Acidulant MAR ; Antidermatitic WIC ; Antihepatocarcinogenic IC100=1% (diet) CPB38:2012 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Antipsoriac WIC ; Antitumor 411 ; FLavor FEMA 50-3,600 ARC

GAMMA-HYDROXYCITRULLIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GERALDONE Fruit 0.02 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GIBBERELLIN-A-53 Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GLUTAMIC-ACID Seed 8,550 - 45,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

GLYCERIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Cholesterolytic DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatotonic FT5:1986

GLYCINE Seed 2,300 - 12,100 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

HCN Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic KCH ; Antidote Ihl (=Amyl Nitrite) M29 ; Antitussive KCH ; Bronchosedative KCH ; Insecticide 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rodenticide M29 ; Vasomotor-Stimulant DUKE1992B

HEXOSAMINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

HISTIDINE Seed 1,340 - 7,050 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

IODINE Fruit 0.09 - 0.6 ppm DUKE1992A

Acnegenic DAS ; Antibacterial AHP146 ; Antigoiter DAS ; Antiseptic AHP146 ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Antiviral AHP146 ; Dermatitigenic DAS ; Fungicide AHP146 ; Goitrogenic DAS ; Hyperthyroid >1 mm/day/diet AHP146 ; Protisticide AHP146 ; Thyrotropic DAS

IRON Seed 19 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOLEUCINE Seed 2,510 - 13,210 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

JASMONIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL Shoot: DUKE1992A

11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

KAEMPFEROL-3-(2"RHAMNOSYL)GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit 3 - 220 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-(6"-ACETYL)GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit 13 - 738 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-0-GLUCOSIDE Fruit 0.01 - 1 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit 8 - 267 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-3-RHAMNOSYL-(6"-ACETYL)GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Plant 8 - 653 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

KAEMPFEROL-7-GLUCOSIDE Fruit 0.03 - 1.3 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B

KILOCALORIES Seed 720 - 3,790 /kg DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

L-DOPA Flower 110,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 2,500 - 25,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,500 - 2,500 ppm DUKE1992A Stem 34,560 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic M29 ; Anorexic 50 mg/kg scu rat BBE ; Antidote (Manganese) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifeedant SCI181:81 ; Antimorphinic 100 scu mus BBE ; Antineuroleptic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 250-8,000 mg/man/day; Antireserpine ED50=400 orl mus BBE ; Antitremor JBH ; Aphrodisiac M29 ; Arrhythmigenic M29 ; Cardiovascular 12 ivn rat BBE ; CNS-Active 50 ivn rat BBE ; Depressant M29 ; Diuretic 1-2 g/man/day MAR ; Dopaminergic 225 orl mus DUKE1992B 50 ipr rat BBE ; Emetic MAR ; Hallucinogen M29 ; Hypertensive M29 ; Hypotensive M29 ; Insectifuge JAD ; Miotic M29 ; Natriuretic MAR

LEUCINE Seed 4,320 - 22,735 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

LEUCOCYANIDIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Capillariprotective M11

LEUCODELPHINIDIN Seed: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory CRC ; Antineoplastic LRN-SEP92

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 1,200 - 6,315 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LINOLENIC-ACID Seed 1,890 - 9,950 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

LYSINE Seed 3,660 - 19,265 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Fruit 330 - 2,260 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 380 - 2,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

MEDICARPIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Analgesic POP:302 ; Antibacterial ED50=10 ug/ml 438 MIC=100 ug/ml PM57:A13 ; Antitubercular JLI ; Anxiolytic IJO16:4 ; Cytotoxic 100 ug/ml PM57:A13 ; Fungicide ED50=25-66 ug/ml JLI MIC=100 ug/ml PM57:A13 ; Nematicide LD50=25 ug/ml PM57:A13 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin MIC=50-100 ug/ml PM57:A13 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer IC50>74.8 uM JNP60(9):869 ; Tranquilizer? IJO16:4

METHIONINE Seed 430 - 2,265 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

MUFA Seed 170 - 895 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYRISTIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NAICIN Seed 15 - 75 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

NIACIN Fruit 8 - 55 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

OLEIC-ACID Seed 170 - 895 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

OXALIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 70 ppm DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-COUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Shoot: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial POP:58 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PCF:65 ; Antiradicular PMID10616967 ; Antisickling 10.5 ug/ml; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungistat EC50=607 ug/ml NIG ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Prostaglandigenic JBH ; Secretogogue CAN ; Ubiquiot JBH

PALMITIC-ACID Seed 1,210 - 6,370 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PALMITOLEIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Seed 50 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PHENYLALANINE Seed 2,280 - 12,000 ppm DUKE1992A

AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

PHOSPHATIDES Seed 12,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Fruit 740 - 5,070 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 950 - 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PIPECOLIC-ACID Seed 4,400 - 4,915 ppm DUKE1992A

Herbistat JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POTASSIUM Fruit 390 - 2,670 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,500 - 13,160 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

PROLINE Seed 2,520 - 13,265 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Fruit 45,000 - 308,200 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 56,000 - 294,735 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUFA Seed 3,100 - 16,315 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

QUERCETIN-3-(6"-ACETYL)GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit 7 - 720 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-3-GALACTOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Fruit 9 - 1,480 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

QUERCETIN-TRIGLYCOSIDE Fruit 2 - 120 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RIBOFLAVIN Seed 1.1 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SERINE Seed 2,460 - 12,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Cancer-Preventive 525

SFA Seed 1,380 - 7,265 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SINAPIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antioxidant IC27=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxynitrite IC39=5 uM JAF50:5884 IC60=20 uM JAF50:5884 IC75=100 uM JAF50:5884 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SODIUM Fruit 435 - 2,980 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 500 - 2,630 ppm DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

STEARIC-ACID Seed 170 - 895 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

STIZOLAMINE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SULFUR Fruit 530 - 3,630 ppm DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

THIAMIN Fruit 0.8 - 5.4 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1.7 - 9 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

THREONINE Seed 2,080 - 10,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

TRYPTOPHAN Seed 560 - 2,950 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

TYROSINE Seed 1,960 - 10,315 ppm DUKE1992A

Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

VALINE Seed 2,740 - 14,420 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

VICINE Fruit 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WATER Fruit 854,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 810,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WAX Leaf 1,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

WYERONE Sprout Seedling 10 - 335 ppm DUKE1992A

Fungicide IC90=500 ug/ml 438 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG

WYERONE-EPOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

Fungicide ED50=<50 JLI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin JLI

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Broad beans

Commonsteps

References

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:84: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:180: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP146: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BJP3:10: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

COX:50: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2012: Akao, M. and Kuroda, K. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Fumaric Acid on Hepatocarcinogenesis by Thioacetamide in Mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(7): 2012-2014, 1990.

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CPB38:774: Yasukawa, K., Takido, M., Takeuchi, M., Sato, Y., Nitta, K., and Nakagawa, S. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonol Glycosides on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced Tumor Promotion. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(3): 774-776, 1990.

CPT59:62: Jim Duke's personal files

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FNF: Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.

FT1990:508: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:548: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG17: HerbalGram No. 17.

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF38:493: Lugemwa, F.N., Huang, F-Y., Bentley, M.D., Mendel, M.J., and Alford, A.R. 1990. A Heliothis zea Antifeedant from the Abundant Birchbark Triterpene Betulin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(2): 493-494.

JAF38:494: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3150: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:2837: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JBC8:211: Oliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JE32:175: Jim Duke's personal files

JLI: Jim Duke's personal files

JLR1(2): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF1(3): Jim Duke's personal files

JMF2:227: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.

JMF2:235: Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 235.1999.

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF6:365: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:710: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP54:142: Garcia, J., Morin,* C., Nyasse, B., Sondengam, B-L., Tchouankeu, J-C., and Tsamo, E. Complete Structural Assignments Of An Ergosterol Derivative From Entandrophragma utile. Journal of Natural Products, 54(1): 136-142, 1991.

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP58:217: Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP60(9):869: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LRN-DEC90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Dec-90.

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN-SEP92: Jim Duke's personal files

LS55:1061: Life Sciences 55: 1061.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:969: Larson, R.A. 1987. Review Article Number 30. The Antioxidants of Higher Plants. Phytochemistry. 27: 969-978.

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:65: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 65.

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):260: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):232: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(1):41: Ekeke, G.I. and Shode, F.O. 1988. Phenylalanine is the Predominant Antisickling Agent in Cajanus cajan Seed Extract. Planta Medica 56(1): 41, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A13: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM64:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMID10616967: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:193: Kumar, P., Dixit*, V.P., and Khanna, P. Antifertility Studies of Kaempferol: Isolation and Identification from Tissue Culture of some Medicinally Important Plant Species. Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie, 23: 193-201, 1989.

PMP23:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:302: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:58: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:102: Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG122: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SCI181:81: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X10404425: Jim Duke's personal files

X10506109: Jim Duke's personal files

X10673981: Jim Duke's personal files

X10813558: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X10923837: Jim Duke's personal files

X10976523: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12120812: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

X15322261: Jim Duke's personal files

X15712986: Jim Duke's personal files

X15796587: Jim Duke's personal files

X15832817: Jim Duke's personal files

X16277432: Jim Duke's personal files

X1637346: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X579998: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X9025787: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK122:487: Jim Duke's personal files

YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 

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