Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) -- Indian Tamarind, Kilytree, Tamarind

Identifier

020609

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) -- Indian Tamarind, Kilytree, Tamarind


Chemicals

ACETIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antibacterial 5,000 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antisalmonella X11307877 ; Antivaginitic 1-2% DUKE1992B ; Expectorant MAR ; Fungicide M29 ; Keratitigenic M&R367 ; Mucolytic M29 ; Osteolytic DUKE1992B ; Perfumery FEMA 6,000-40,000 ppm ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide M29 ; Spermicide MAR ; Ulcerogenic HG20:9 ; Verrucolytic DUKE1992B

ALKYLTHIAZOLES Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ALPHA-TERPINEOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml (weak activity) K26575 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 ug/ml TYK1992:95 ; Allelopathic CWW ; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antibacterial MIC=800-1,600 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103 ; Antiinflammatory X17867636 ; Antiproliferant X16964395 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cicatrizant ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668 ; FLavor FEMA 5-40 ARC ; Insecticide 1.29 uM/fly JAF50:4576 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Mosquitofuge > Deet X15825766 ; Motor-Depressant BVC:162 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162 ; Termiticide IC100=5 mg/g; Transdermal X10434134 ; Vulnerary ED50=240 ug/g mus X11678668

ARABINOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ASCORBIC-ACID Flower 600 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 24 - 585 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 263 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

ASH Flower 35,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 27,000 - 39,358 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 26,000 - 73,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 25,000 - 32,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

BETA-CAROTENE Flower 10 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 1 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 2 - 110 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

CALCIUM Flower 2,650 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 698 - 2,829 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1,053 - 23,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,210 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

CALCIUM-PECTATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CALCIUM-TARTRATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Flower 750,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 625,000 - 925,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 706,000 - 750,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 651,000 - 740,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

CELLULOSE Fruit 18,000 - 32,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Hemostat M29

CHLORINE Leaf 940 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antibacterial M29 ; Antiherpetic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antiviral M29 ; Candidicide M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

CINNAMALDEHYDE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12137464 ; Adrenergic CAN ; Allelochemic IC100=2.5 mM 438 ; Allergenic; Anesthetic ZUL ; Antiaggregant 200 uM EMP5:343 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-1,000 ug/ml; Antienterococcic MIC=250 ug/ml JE70:123 ; Antiescherichic MIC=500 ug/ml JE70:123 ; Antiherpetic AEHD1:106 ; Antiinflammatory ZUL ; Antiklebsiellic MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE70:123 ; Antileukemic PJB1(1):172 ; Antimutagenic HG24:40 ; Antipneumonic JE70:123 ; Antipseudomonic JE70:123 ; Antipyretic; Antisalmonella MIC=500 ug/ml; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml JE70:123 ; Antiulcer 500 mg/kg/orl DUKE1992B ; Antiurease USP5,560,912 ; Antiviral AEHD1:106 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide MIC=16-40 ppm QRNM(SUMMER):114 ; Choleretic 500 mg/kg/orl DUKE1992B ; Chronotropic AEHD1:106 ; Circulatory-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant 411 ; CNS-Stimulant 411 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=245 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor ZUL ; Cytotoxic ED50=5-60 ug/ml AEHD1:111 ; FLavor PJB1(3):234 ; Fungicide 1.7-250 ppm DUKE1992B MIC=16-40 ppm QRNM(SUMMER):114 ; Herbicide JBH ; Histaminic AEHD1:109 ; Hypoglycemic 411 ; Hypotensive 411 ; Hypothermic AEHD1:107 ; Inotropic AEHD1:106 ; Insecticide LAF ; Irritant RIN ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor ZUL ; Monoaminergic PJB1(3):234 ; Mutagenic AEHD1:110 ; Nematicide 100 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery PJB1(1):172 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative PJB1(1):172 ; Sprout-Inhibitor PER.COM.SFV ; Teratogenic AEHD1:110 ; Termiticide LD100=5 mg/g JAF50:1389 LD96=1 mg/g JAF50:1389 ; Tranquilizer JNP39:438 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=129 ug/ml JAF47:4574 ID50=970 uM JAF50:1400 ; Vasodilator PJB1(1):172 ; Vibriocide MIC=250 ug/ml JE70:123

CITRIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R610 ; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor X10879476 ; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm MAR ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Anticalculic JE26:81 ; Anticoagulant M11 ; Antileishmanic X18095647 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Disinfectant M29 ; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400 ARC ; Hemostat JE26:81 ; Irritant ZEB ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Litholytic M29 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Odontolytic ZEB ; Refrigerant MAR

COPPER Leaf 21 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

D-ARABINOSE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-GALACTOSE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

D-GLUCOSE Seed: DUKE1992A

Antisecretory NR54:36

D-XYLOSE Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

ETHYL-CINNAMATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

FLavor FEMA 4-40 ARC ; Nematicide MLC=1,000 uM SZ44:183

FAT Flower 90,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 3,000 - 9,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 36,000 - 44,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 60,000 - 74,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

FIBER Flower 60,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 31,000 - 74,343 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 57,000 - 186,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 7,000 - 43,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

FRUCTOSE Fruit 90,000 - 120,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

GALACTOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Sweetener 0.32 x sucrose MAR

GALACTURONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

GERANIAL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Antiaflatoxin X19726096 ; Antibacterial JE12:279.1984 ; AntiEBV IC50=16 uM NR54:S24 ; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiviral NR54:S24 ; Antiyeast X12696686 ; Chemopreventive X17199238 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Fungicide; Glutathionigenic X17199238 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spasmolytic JAR10:7

GERANIOL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A

Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

GLUCOSE Fruit 210,000 - 280,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

HCN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic KCH ; Antidote Ihl (=Amyl Nitrite) M29 ; Antitussive KCH ; Bronchosedative KCH ; Insecticide 382 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Respirastimulant KCH ; Rodenticide M29 ; Vasomotor-Stimulant DUKE1992B

HORDENINE Bark: DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antidiarrheic 35 mg/kg scu dog BBE ; Antifeedant JBH ; Bronchorelaxant DUKE1992B ; Cardiotonic 2 mg/cat ivn BBE ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:61 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor DUKE1992B

INVERT-SUGARS Fruit 300,000 - 400,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

IRON Flower 70 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 13 - 109 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 52 - 88 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

ISOORIENTIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antioxidant JAF45:632 ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Larvistat IC50=2.6-3.5 mM/kg diet 438 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ISOVITEXIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=0.28 mM/l M20461 ; Antioxidant =tocopherol PCF:132 >BHA NIG ; Cancer-Preventive 525

LACTIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acidulant JBH ; Antileukorrheic M29 ; Antioxidant Synergist JBH ; Antivaginitic M29 ; Antixerotic M29 ; FLavor FEMA 10-25,000 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Keratolytic MAR

LIMONENE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Acaricide LC100=8 uM JAF50:4586 ; AChE-Inhibitor 453 ; Allelochemic JAF45:3276 ; Allergenic 1/20th carene M&R521 ; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC22-26=1.2 mM JAF45:677 ; Antiadenomic ACT13:64 ; Antialzheimeran? 453 ; Antiasthmatic X15598576 ; Antibacterial RIE12:5 ; Anticancer AEM401:131 ; Antiesophagitic ACT13:64 ; Antifeedant JAF45:3276 ; Antiflu EMP5:195 ; Antiinflammatory X15598576 ; Antilithic M29:1064 ; Antilymphomic X15778119 ; Antimetastatic (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiobesity X15862904 ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antispasmodic ED50=0.197 mg/ml FT59:465 ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Colon) ACT13:64 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Prostate) AEM401:131 ; Antitumor (Stomach) ACT13:64 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic X14998133 ; Bronchoprotectant X15598576 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidistat JAF40:2330 ; Chemopreventive AEM401:131 ; Cholesterolytic X18072821 ; Detoxicant; Enterocontractant JAR4:22 ; Expectorant; FLavor PJB1(3):242 ; Fungiphilic JAF43:2283 ; Fungistat JAF40:2330 ; GST-Inducer X1438594 ; Herbicide IC50=45 uM TOX ; Histaminic X15862904 ; Immunomodulator X15778119 ; Insecticide 0.37 uM/fly; Insectifuge 382 ; Interleukin-6-Inhibitor X17867636 ; Irritant; Lipolytic X15862904 ; Myorelaxant 50 mg/kg X12587690 ; Nematicide IC=100 ug/ml NIG ; NO-Genic X15778119 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor ~750 mg/kg (diet) BO2 ; Ozone-Scavenger X15598576 ; P450-Inducer; Peristaltic X18072821 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Photosensitizer RIN ; Sedative ED=1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Transdermal X7199340

LINOLEIC-ACID Fruit 590 - 860 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 27,840 - 34,336 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne JAR12:99 ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antiarthritic EMP6:189 ; Anticoronary JBH ; Antieczemic EMP6:189 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antigranular DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic EMP6:189 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=31 uM; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Antimenorrhagic PAM ; AntiMS EMP6:189 ; Antiprostatitic PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic SN146:421 ; Comedolytic JAR12:99 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Immunomodulator EMP6:189 ; Insectifuge 382 ; Metastatic SN146:421 ; Nematicide NIG ; Propecic X12033503

LYSINE Fruit 1,390 - 2,026 ppm DUKE1992A

Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

MAGNESIUM Fruit 920 - 1,341 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 710 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MALIC-ACID Fruit 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 15,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29

METHIONINE Fruit 140 - 204 ppm DUKE1992A

Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

METHOXYL Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-GLUTAMIC-ACID Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYL-SALICYLATE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allergenic MAR ; Analgesic JE26:76 ; Anaphrodisiac X10972120 ; Antiinflammatory PM56(6):660 ; Antioxidant X8042906 ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular JPP42:205 ; Antirheumatalgic MAR ; Antiseptic JAF44:2802 ; Antitartar X12537346 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carminative JE26:76 ; Counterirritant M11 ; Dentifrice ARC ; FLavor FEMA 70-8,000 ARC ; Fungicide X16719518 ; Herpetifuge X2192901 ; Insectifuge JCE20:2847 ; Insectiphile X15112723 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

METHYLENEGLUTAMIC-ACID Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

METHYLENEGLUTAMINE Sprout Seedling: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

MUFA Fruit 1,810 - 2,640 ppm DUKE1992A

Allergenic M&R495 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC

MYRISTIC-ACID Fruit 70 - 102 ppm DUKE1992A

Antioxidant IC71=60 JAF50:2231 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cosmetic JBH ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG

NIACIN Flower 60 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 16 - 33 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 66 ppm; DUKE1992A

Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

OLEIC-ACID Fruit 1,810 - 2,638 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 16,320 - 20,128 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

ORIENTIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

Antiinflammatory FT61:263.1990 ; Antioxidant JAF45:632 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525

OXALIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A Leaf 1,960 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acaricide X12090773 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; Fatal M29 ; Hemostatic M11 ; Irritant M&R499 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Renotoxic M11 ; Varroacide X12090773

P-CRESOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Allelochemic IC50=1.13 mM 438 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiseptic JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC ; Parasiticide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rodenticide LD50=1,100 cut rat AFR27:165

PALMITIC-ACID Fruit 1,680 - 2,449 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antioxidant IC40=60 JAF50:2231 ; FLavor FEMA 1 ARC ; Hemolytic BIS ; Hypercholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Nematicide NIG ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Propecic X12033503 ; Soap JBH

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Fruit 1 - 2 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiallergic 100-500 mg/day WER ; Antiarthritic 500-2,000 mg/day; Anticephalagic JBH ; Anticlaudificant? M29 ; Antidermatitic JAD ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antihypercholesterolemic 300 mg/meal WER ; Antiielus? M29 ; Antiinsomniac? M29 ; Antirheumatitic? M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

PECTIN Fruit 20,000 - 25,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PENTOSAN Fruit 42,000 - 48,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHENOL Fruit: DUKE1992A

Analgesic M29 ; Anesthetic JE26:79 ; Antibacterial JE26:79 ; Antihemorrhoidal MAR ; Antihydrocoele M29 ; Antiincontinence M29 ; AntiMS M29 ; Antionychogryphotic MAR ; Antiotitic MAR ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiprostatitic M29 ; Antipyruvetic JBH ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antisinusitic MAR ; Antispastic MAR ; Antiviral M29 ; Antiwrinkle MAR ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Depressant M29 ; Emetic M29 ; Fungicide M29 ; Hemolytic 5,400 ppm MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Rodenticide LD50=1,040 cut rat AFR27:165 ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

PHLOBOTANNIN Seed: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Flower 2,200 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 1,130 - 1,647 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1,000 - 2,281 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,370 ppm; DUKE1992A

Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

PIPECOLINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PIPERITONE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1-2 ARC ; Herbicide IC50=30 mM 438 IC50=75 uM TOX ; Insectifuge (> DEET) JNP56:935 ; Perfumery ARC ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

POTASSIUM Flower 12,700 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 6,280 - 15,415 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 11,974 ppm; DUKE1992A

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

POTASSIUM-OXIDE Fruit 1,032 - 7,654 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROLINE Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Flower 125,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 28,000 - 117,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 141,000 - 224,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 171,000 - 201,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PUFA Fruit 590 - 860 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiacne MAR ; Antieczemic MAR ; AntiMS MAR ; Antipolyneuritic MAR

PYRIDOXINE Fruit 1 - 2 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 50 mg day WER ; Antiacne 50 mg/day; Antiaggregant 40 mg/day; Antianemic 50-400 mg/man/day; Antiasthmatic 100-200 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic 40 mg/day WER ; Antiautistic DAS ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 100-150 mg/day/12 wks/orl/man M29 ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant 40-50 mg day; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DAS ; Antidote (Hydrazine) 10 g ivn M29 ; Antidyskinetic 250-300 mg/man/4x/day MAR ; Antiemetic 20-200 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiepileptic 40 mg/day; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antihomocystinuric; Antihyperkinetic 1.5-2 g/day WER ; Antihyperventilation 40 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility WER ; Antilithic WER ; AntiMorning-Sickness PAM ; AntiMSG-Sensitivity 50 mg/day WER ; Antinephritic DAS ; Antineuritic 150 mg/man/day MAR ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antioxaluric PAM ; Antiparkinsonian 50 mg day; AntiPMS 100 mg/day/orl/wmn M29 50 mg/day PAM ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiradiation DAS ; Antischizophrenic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antiseborrheic DAS ; Antisickling DAS ; Antispasmodic 100 mg/day WER ; AntiTMJ 50 mg/day WER ; Antiulcer DAS ; Antivertigo DAS ; Dopaminergic PAM ; Neurotoxic 2-6 g/day for 2-24 mos M29 ; Progesteronigenic 40 mg/day WER

QUINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Choleretic FT5:1986

RIBOFLAVIN Flower 6 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 1 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A

Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

SAFROLE Fruit: DUKE1992A

Anesthetic JE26:79 ; Antiaggregant IC50=110 uM JE29:184 ; Antibacterial JE26:79 ; Anticonvulsant JBH ; Antiseptic M11 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=57 uM gpg IC50=58 uM LAB58 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic M11 ; Carminative JE26:80 ; CNS-Depressant JBH ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Controlled HG20:15 ; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer CAN ; Cytochrome-P488-Inducer CAN ; DNA-Binder JBH ; Hepatocarcinogenic CAN ; Hepatoregenerative CRC ; Hepatotoxic M29 ; Hypothermic JBH ; Irritant RIN ; Mutagenic AHP152 ; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183 ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pediculicide M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychoactive RJH ; Tremorigenic AFR27:212

SFA Fruit 2,720 - 3,965 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

SODIUM Flower 250 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 49 - 743 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 351 ppm; DUKE1992A

Hypertensive DAS

STEARIC-ACID Fruit 600 - 874 ppm DUKE1992A

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X10830511 ; Cosmetic JBH ; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Lubricant JBH ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X10830511 ; Suppository JBH

SUCCINIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

SULFUR Leaf 630 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acarifuge DUKE1992B ; Antiacne M29 ; Antiarthritic WER ; Antidandruff M29 ; Antigrey M29 ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiseborrheic M29 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Comedogenic M29 ; Keratolytic M29 ; Laxative M29 ; Parasiticide M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Scabicide M29

TANNIN Bl 70,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed: DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

TARTARIC-ACID Fruit 80,000 - 180,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 120,000 - 280,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Acidifier JBH ; Additive ARC ; Antioxidant Synergist M29 ; FLavor FEMA 500-10,000 ARC ; Irritant ZEB ; Sequestrant ARC

THIAMIN Flower 4 ppm; DUKE1992A Fruit 2 - 9 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 4 ppm; DUKE1992A

Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TRYPTOPHAN Fruit 180 - 262 ppm DUKE1992A

Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

URONIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

VITEXIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

ACE-Inhibitor 5 ug/ml J18483 IC50=0.3 mM/l M20461 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 5 ug/ml PAT06,293,657 IC15=10 uM PC23:1885 ; Antiarrhythmic PT4(3):118 ; Antibradiquinic FT61:277.1990 ; Antidermatitic DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory FT61:263.1990 ; Antioxidant JAF45:632 ; Antiserotoninic DUKE1992B ; Antithyroid JBH ; Aphidifuge JAF45:4505 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor IC50=1.6 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Goitrogenic JBH ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Thyroid-Peroxidase-Inhibitor JBH

WATER Fruit 314,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Activities

Suppressions

Tamarind

Commonsteps

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

453: Grundy, D. L. and Still, C. C., Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases by pulegone-1,2-epoxide, Oest. Biochem. & Physiol., 23, 1985, 383-8.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACN:207: Jim Duke's personal files

ACS791:267: Jim Duke's personal files

ACT13:64: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:106: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:107: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:109: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:110: Jim Duke's personal files

AEHD1:111: Jim Duke's personal files

AEM401:131: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:165: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:212: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP152: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC62:1212: Jim Duke's personal files

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2862: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:3086: Seki, T., Toeda, C., Kawaguchi, T., Juni, K., Sugibayashi, K., and Morimoto, Y. 1990. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Zidovudine in Rats and Human Skin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(11): 3086-3089, 1990.

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195.

EMP5:343: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 343.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:157: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 157.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984.

FT5:1986: Fitoterapia No.5-1986.

FT61:263.1990: Fitoterapia No.61: 263, 1990.

FT61:277.1990: Fitoterapia No.61: 277, 1990.

FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files

GAS: Spiller, G. A. 1996 (Spiller, G. A. Ed. 1996. CRC Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 233 pp.)

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HG20:15: HerbalGram No. 20, page 15.

HG20:9: HerbalGram No. 20, page 9.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG24:40: HerbalGram No. 24, page 40.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

J18483: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF36:1079: J. Agri. & Food Chemistry, 36: 1079.

JAF40:2330: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.

JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.

JAF43:2283: J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2283.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2802: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:3276: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:4505: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:677: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1389: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:1400: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2231: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4576: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4586: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR12:99: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22.

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE20:2847: Hardie, J., Isaacs, R., Pickett,* J.A., Wadhams, L.J., and Woodcock, C.M. 1994. Methyl Salicylate and (-)-(1R,5S)-Myrtenal are Plant-Derived Repellents for Black Bean Aphid, Aphis Fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. of Chemical Ecology, 20(11):2847.

JE12:279.1984: Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W-A., Ogunlana,* E.O. 1984. Antibacterial Constituents In The Essential Oil Of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12: 279-286, 1984.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:79: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:81: Jim Duke's personal files

JE29:184: Janssens, J., Laekeman, G.M., Pieters, L.A.C., Totte, J., Herman, A.G., and Vlietinck, A.J. 1990. Nutmeg Oil: Identification and Quantitation of its Most Active Constituents as Inhibitors of Platelet Aggregation. J.of Ethnopharmacology, 29: 179-188, 1990.

JE70:123: Jim Duke's personal files

JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.

JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP39:438: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP49:5750: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP56:935: Bowers, W.S., Ortego, F., You, X., and Evans, P.H. Insect Repellents From The Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Journal of Natural Products, 56(6): 935-938, 1993.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

JPP42:205: O'Connell, M.J., Webster, N.R. 1989. Hyperoxia and salicylate metabolism in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 205-206, 1990.

JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files

K26575: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

KEn: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB58: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.

M&R367: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R495: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R499: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R521: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M20461: Jim Duke's personal files

M29: Martindale's 29th

M29:1064: Jim Duke's personal files

MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:36: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S24: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PAT06,293,657: Okamot, Y., Yoshizawa, T. 1994. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Passiflora quadraqularis Extracts or Vitexin. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-06,293,657. 4pp.

PC23:1885: Shimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.

PC27:976: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:132: Jim Duke's personal files

PER.COM.SFV: Duke, J.A.. Personal Communication.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):172: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):234: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):242: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):660: Planta Medica, 56(6): 660, 1990.

PM57:A110: Planta Medica, 57: A110, 1991.

PM57:A133: Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:61: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:153: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PT4(3):118: Jim Duke's personal files.

QRNM(SUMMER):114: Jim Duke's personal files

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RIE12:5: Revista Itiliana Eppos, 12: 5, 1994.

RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG:17: Jim Duke's personal files

SN138:189.1990: Science News, 138: 189, 1990.

SN146:421: Science News, 146: 421.

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

TYK1992:95: Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.

USP5,560,912: Jim Duke's personal files

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

X10434134: Jim Duke's personal files

X10830511: Jim Duke's personal files

X10879476: Jim Duke's personal files

X10972120: Jim Duke's personal files

X11307877: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11678668: Jim Duke's personal files

X12033503: Jim Duke's personal files

X12090773: Jim Duke's personal files

X12120812: Jim Duke's personal files

X12137464: Jim Duke's personal files

X12350076: Jim Duke's personal files

X12495555: Jim Duke's personal files

X12537346: Jim Duke's personal files

X12587690: Jim Duke's personal files

X12696686: Jim Duke's personal files

X1438594: Jim Duke's personal files

X14998133: Jim Duke's personal files

X15112723: Jim Duke's personal files

X15598576: Jim Duke's personal files

X15778119: Jim Duke's personal files

X15825766: Jim Duke's personal files

X15862904: Jim Duke's personal files

X16277432: Jim Duke's personal files

X16719518: Jim Duke's personal files

X16964395: Jim Duke's personal files

X17199238: Jim Duke's personal files

X17867636: Jim Duke's personal files

X18072821: Jim Duke's personal files

X18095647: Jim Duke's personal files

X19726096: Jim Duke's personal files

X2192901: Jim Duke's personal files

X634178: Jim Duke's personal files

X6654625: Jim Duke's personal files

X7199340: Jim Duke's personal files

X8042906: Jim Duke's personal files

ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ZUL: Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace