Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Senna alata (L.) ROXB. (Fabaceae) -- Ringworm Bush



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Dr Duke’s list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Senna alata (L.) ROXB. (Fabaceae) -- Ringworm Bush



No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Antibacterial MIC=2-64 ug/ml; Antiherpetic AAC35:2463 ; Antileukemic; Antisalmonella CAN ; Antiseptic X10478467 ; Antistaphylococcic X10478467 ; Antitumor 1 ug/ml; Antiviral; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Calcium-Antagonist (strong activity); Candidicide MIC=25-250 ug/ml X10967452 ; Cathartic M11 ; Cytotoxic 20 ppm DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic X18563353 ; Fungicide MIC=25-250 ug/ml X10967452 ; Genotoxic JBH ; Laxative AEH113 ; Mutagenic AEH113 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Purgative ED50=>59.6 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Termitifuge JBH ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 1 mM MR371:165 IC50=741 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Tuberculostatic PEP


Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3


Allergenic M11 ; Antipsoriac M29 ; Antitrichophytotic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic 1 ug/ml AEH ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide M11 ; Irritant DUKE1992B ; Keratolytic DUKE1992B ; Mutagenic AEH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Calcium-Antagonist 5/6 aloeemodin LAB107 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Cathartic DUKE1992B ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Purgative ED50=>500 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Termitifuge JBH


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


AGEs-Inhibitor IC50=118 uM X17978503 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=15.9 uM X17978503 ; Allergenic CAN ; Antiaggregant JNP33(3):630 ; Antiangiogenic; Antibacterial BOI ; Anticytomegalovirus ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiinflammatory 15 mg/kg IJE29:230 ; Antileukemic JBH ; Antilymphomic JNM7:51 ; AntiMRSA MIC 2-64 ug/ml X10478467 ; Antimutagenic FVT29:765 ; Antineoplastic JNM7:51 ; Antiplaque ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antiproliferant IC50=20-30 uM BO2 ; Antisarcomic PJB1(1):174 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antisprout PJB1(1):174 ; Antitumor (Breast) IJO16:197 ; Antiulcer 15 mg/kg IJE29:230 ; Antivaginitic AKT ; Antiviral EC50=1.1 PM56(6):651 ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Cathartic M11 ; CNS-Depressant 15 mg/kg ipr mus FT65(4):275 ; Collagenase-Inhibitor IC50=40 uM BO2 ; COX-2-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic CD50=2.6 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Differentiator IC50=20-30 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic X18563353 ; Genotoxic AEH113 ; Gonadotropic JE26:82 ; Hypolipidemic BOI ; Immunostimulant BOI ; Immunosuppressant EJP198:211 ; iNOS-Inhibitor X12391547 ; Leucocytogenic BOI ; MMP-2-Inhibitor X19291397 ; MMP-7-Inhibitor X19291397 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor X19291397 ; Mutagenic AEH114 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=60.7 uM X12391547 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12391547 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=23 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=25 uM BO2 ; PTK-Inhibitor 10-100 uM IC50=19-37 uM BO2 ; Purgative ED50=>500 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195 ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 1 mM MR371:165 IC50=7 uM/ml BBA1428:406 ; Trichomonicide JE40:111 ; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor PH2 ; Vasodilator EJP198:211 ; Vasorelaxant EJP198:211

FAT Seed 29,000 - 35,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Seed 161,000 - 181,000 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

RHEIN Plant: DUKE1992A

Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticarcinomic IJO16:197 ; Anticariogenic PHZ49:681 ; Anticytomegalovirus ED50=1.1 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antineoplastic JNM7:51 ; Antiplaque ED50=0.6 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Antiseptic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor LTN-APR-92 ; Antiviral EC50=1.1 PM56(6):651 ED50=0.61 ug/ml HG40:23 ; Calcium-Antagonist 9/10 aloeemodin; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Cathartic PC29(10):3095 ; Cytotoxic CD50=3.4 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Proteinase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Purgative ED50=97.5 mg/kg orl mus IJO16:195


No activity reported.


Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Beta sitosterol
Ringworm bush



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC35:2463: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH: De Smet, P.A.G.M., Keller, K., Hansel, R. and Chandler, R.F., eds. 1993. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs 2. Springr-Verlag, Berlin. 348pp.

AEH113: Jim Duke's personal files

AEH114: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AKT: TIllotson, A. K. (with Abel, Jr., R., Tillotson, N.H., Bajracharya, V.M.B.). 2001. The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know about Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments. Twin Streams, Kensington Publishing Corp. NY,NY. 596 pp

BBA1428:406: Mueller, S. O., Stopper, H. 1999. Characterization of the Genotoxicity of Anthraquinones in Mammalian Cells. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1428: 406-414.

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BOI: Jim Duke's personal files

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EJP198:211: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

FT63(1):3: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(4):275: Jim Duke's personal files

FT68(4):291: Jim Duke's personal files

FVT29:765: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HG40:23: Jim Duke's personal files

IJE29:230: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:195: Jim Duke's personal files

IJO16:197: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:82: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990.

JE40:111: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM7:51: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP33(3):630: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

LAB107: Jim Duke's personal files

LTN-APR-92: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M30: Martindale's 30th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MR371:165: Muller, S. O., Eckert, I., Lutz, W. K., Stopper, H. 1996. Genotoxicity of the Laxative Drug Components Emodin, Aloe-emodin and Danthron in Mammalian Cells: Topoisomerase II Mediated? Mutat Res, 371: 165-173.

PC29(10):3095: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990.

PEP: Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM9:52: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ49:681: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):174: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):651: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:60: Jim Duke's personal files

PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103.

PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991.

QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155.

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

X10478467: Jim Duke's personal files

X10967452: Jim Duke's personal files

X11988857: Jim Duke's personal files

X12391547: Jim Duke's personal files

X17350814: Jim Duke's personal files

X17358014: Jim Duke's personal files

X17978503: Jim Duke's personal files

X18563353: Jim Duke's personal files

X19291397: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace


Sun Nov 8 07:35:16 EST 2015