Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

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This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae) -- Black Poplar



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae) -- Black Poplar



Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL


No activity reported.


Antiaflatoxin IC50=2.08 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.19 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic PAM ; Antiangiogenic X18593176 ; Antibacillary FT67:554 ; Antibacterial FT67:554 ; Anticonvulsant BP40:2227 ; Antiestrogenic; Antigout PIL ; Antiherpetic 40-75 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; AntiHIV; Antihypertensive X18593176 ; Antileukemic >genistein X18076792 ; AntiMDR X17266043 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antiproliferant X18076792 X17250812 ; Antiproliferant (colon) MES ; Antisalmonella FT67:554 ; Antishigellic FT67:554 ; Antispasmodic BP40(10):2227 ; Antistaphylococcic FT67:554 ; Antistress JFM5:43 ; Antithrombic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor (Breast) X18593176 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antiviral 40-75 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Anxiolytic; Apoptotic X18331776 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC80=1 uM/l; Cancer-Preventive; Caspase-3-Inhibitor X18331776 ; Caspase-9-Inhibitor X18331776 ; CNS-Depressant JNP67:359 ; CYP1A1-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic >genistein X18076792 X18331776 ; DNA-Protective X11752233 ; Estrogenic X12224631 ; Fungicide 2.5 mM PC38:599 ; Hepatoprotective IC50=2.08 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.19 uM X11714299 ; Hypotensive X18593176 ; Hypouricemic PIL ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic X11714299 ; Myorelaxant BP40:2227 ; NO-Genic X18593176 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective X17473440 ; Termitifuge 382 ; Testosterogenic JFM5:43 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Vasodilator PM67:567 ; Vasorelaxant X18593176 ; VEGF-Inhibitor X18593176 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PIL


No activity reported.

EO Bulb 5,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiangiogenic X15884816 ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; AntiMRSA X9145218 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 2/3 BHA JAF50:889 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperiodontitic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiproteolytic 10 ug/ml X2142592 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=4.9 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Cytotoxic 500 uM JAF50:850 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide MIC=1,000 ug/ml JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Hepatoprotective HDN ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29 ; NO-Inhibitor IC-26=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225


Antiatherosclerotic PIL ; Anticancer; AntiCRP X17263473 ; Antiinflammatory; Antioxidant 10-15 ug/g JAF44:2096 IC43=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprostaglandin X17263473 ; Antitumor; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor X17263473 ; Hypocholesterolemic X17263473 ; Natriuretic X17263473 ; NO-Inhibitor; PKC-Inhibitor X17263473


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial PR14:303 ; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day PIL ; Antioxidant Synergist M11 ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic M29 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor EMP6:235 ; Bacteristat DUKE1992B ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Hemopoietic DUKE1992B ; Laxative? LRN-SEP91 ; Mycobactericide PR14:303 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sialogogue M29


Allergenic M29 ; Analgesic X1482539 ; Anthelmintic WOI ; Antiglaucomic MAR ; Antiinflammatory WOI ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic M29 ; Antioxidant 505 ; Antiradicular PCF:146 ; AntiReye's M29 ; Antispasmodic WOI ; Diuretic M11 ; Emetic MAR ; Flatugenic M29 ; Laxative; Nephrotoxic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sweetener JBH


No activity reported.


Antipodagric DUKE1992B


No activity reported.

RESIN Plant: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Analgesic 411 ; Antiaggregant 411 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiinflammatory PM56(6):660 ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative WOI ; Stomachic M11 ; Teratogenic CRC ; Tonic DUKE1992B ; Uterorelaxant WOI


Analgesic PM55(7):691


No activity reported.


Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


No activity reported.

ZETA-TOCOPHEROL Inflorescence: DUKE1992A

No activity reported.

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps






382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BP40(10):2227: Biochem Pharmacol, 40(10): 2227.

BP40:2227: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229

CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses

DIA: Soumyanath, A. Ed. 2006. Traditional Medicines for Modern Times - Antidiabetic Plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 314 pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66:507: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:554: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files

JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files

JFM5:43: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP55:1732: Amoros, M., Simoes, C.M.O., Girre, L., et al. Synergistic Effect Of Flavones And Flavonols Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 In Cell Culture. Comparison With The Antiviral Activity Of Propolis. J. of Natural Products 55(12):1732-1740, 1992.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:359: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files

LRN-SEP91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-91.

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC38:599: Geibel, M. 1994. Sensitivity of the Fungus Cytospora persoonii to the Flavonoids of Prunus cerasus. Phytochemistry. 38(3): 599-601. 1995.

PCF:146: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PM55(7):691: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):660: Planta Medica, 56(6): 660, 1990.

PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.

PM67:567: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:303: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.

TIH14:223: Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korman, J., Kostian, M. L. 1998. Phytoestrogens: Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Males. Toxicol Ind Health, 14: 223-237.

W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

X10813558: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11752233: Jim Duke's personal files

X12224631: Jim Duke's personal files

X1482539: Jim Duke's personal files

X15322261: Jim Duke's personal files

X15884816: Jim Duke's personal files

X17250812: Jim Duke's personal files

X17263473: Jim Duke's personal files

X17266043: Jim Duke's personal files

X17473440: Jim Duke's personal files

X18076792: Jim Duke's personal files

X18331776: Jim Duke's personal files

X18593176: Jim Duke's personal files

X2142592: Jim Duke's personal files

X9145218: Jim Duke's personal files

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace